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final exam anat and phys
Terms in this set (181)
The relationship between form and function is called
Which organ system picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood?
Place in order from small to large
cell, tissue, organ, organ system
A cut that separates left from right is one made in a ______ plane.
Place the components of the control system in order.
receptor, afferent, control center, efferent
Oxytocin stimulates uterine contraction; uterine pressure stimulates oxytocin release; this is an example of
In the negative feedback system for body temperature, which is an effector?
In the anatomical position, the pollex points
The breastbone is anterior to the heart; the thorax is superior to the abdomen
The carpal region is _______ to the brachial region
Which of the following refers to the chin region?
The space containing the heart is the _______ which is in the _______ body cavity
Which abdominal quadrant houses the appendix
Which organ is located in the hypogastric region
The inguinal regions are _______ to the hypogastric region
Which type of subatomic particle has a mass of 1 amu and also carries a charge
Tritium has one proton and one electron, and it has a mass number of 3; it is an isotope of:
When two oxygen atoms come together they form a
covalently bonded molecule
The bond within an oxygen molecule is a:
double, nonpolar bond
To make a sports drink, you mix some granules of sugar and salt into a lot of water. And so the:
granules are solutes, water is the solvent, the drink is the solution
When blood settles, the components of the _______ have seperated.
5% dextrose is a common solution for IVs. Its concentration of sugar is:
5 mg per 100 mL of solution
An atom that has lost electrons is called a(n):
Where are the hydrogen bonds in a sample of water?
between hydrogen on one molecule and oxygen of another
Which are referred to as proton acceptors?
Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) ionizes into Na+ and a bicarbonate ion; the bicarbonate ion is a
Synthesis of sucrose from 2 monosaccharides is a(n) _______ reaction in which water is a _______.
Glycogen is an important _______.
The heads of phospholipids are
When a chain of amino acids twists to form an alpha helix, the helix is considered a _______ structure.
Enzymes are _____ that _____ the energy required to start a reaction
Projections of cell membrane that increase surface area for absorption of material
The sugary coat of a membrane that helps with cell adhesion and cell identification
These connections mechanically link adjacent cells and prevent them from being torn apart
Osmosis is a(n) _____ process; endocytosis is a(n) _____ process.
For every ATP it spends, the Na/K pump pushes...
two K+ into the cell
Pinocytosis is a type of endocytosis
SNAREs are proteins critical for the process of;
Compared to inside the cell, a hypertonic bath has _____ nonpenetrating solutes; this causes cells to _____.
Cells have a _____ resting potential, since _____ diffuses out of its numerous leakage channels
Put the organelles in order.
rough ER, transport vesicle, golgi apparatus, secretory vesicle
Thickest ingredients of cytoskeleton; other organelles attach to these; they make the mitotic spindle.
Organelle where ribosomal subunits are made
Middle of a chromosome
Place the phases of mitosis in order
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
S-phase occurs during anaphase
RNA polymerase is an enzyme involved in
Place in the correct order
transcription, editing (splicing), translation, modification and packaging
Transitional epithelium is a _____ epithelium found in the _____.
Epithelial tissues are avascular.
Which layer of an epithelium is at the "free edge"?
The structure of mammary glands is described as:
Sebaceous glands secrete when their cells burst into a duct. This is called _____ secretion.
Ductless glands that secrete their products into the blood are:
Areolar tissue is a subtype of _____ tissue
Tendons are primarily made of which tissue type?
dense regular connective tissue
Which type of tissue is made of large cells with multiple, peripheral nuclei in each cell?
The spaces within cartilage that house cells are called _____
The sweat glands found only in the armpits and anogenital regions are called _____ glands
The outer layer of a hair containing overlapping thin cells is called its:
The transparent epidermal layer found only in thick skin is the stratum _____.
Which type of epidermal cell contributes most directly to the sense of touch?
The little hard beams of spongy bone are called:
Running down the length of an osteon is an opening called the:
Cell that resorbs bone
The boxy bones of the wrist and ankle are _____ bones.
What is the region of a long bone where lengthwise growth occurs in childhood?
The center of a diaphysis houses...
yellow marrow in the medullary cavity
A rounded articular projection is a...
Bat-shaped, keystone cranial bone.
The maxilla is a _____ bone
The squamous suture connects the parietal bone to the:
This bone in the medial aspect of the orbit has a passageway accommodating a drain for tears
Its zygomatic process helps form the arch of the cheek; ligaments from its styloid suspend the hyoid.
Dura protecting the brain attaches to this projection that rises up from the ethmoid
Behind the glabella sits an air-filled cavity known as the:
This round opening on the bottom of the temporal bone is a passageway for an important artery.
The mental foramina are holes in the...
body of the mandible
Which bone contains the dens?
What type of curvature does the lumbar spine typically show?
When the normal convex curve of the thoracic spine becomes abnormally excessive
Which part of the thoracic vertebra makes a joint with a rib tubercle?
There are _____ pairs of ribs - the same as the number of thoracic vertebrae
The place where the manubrium and sternal body meet is the:
The rounded, lateral end of the scapular spine is the:
The depression on the back of the distal humerus is the:
The biceps tendon passes through this groove on the front of the proximal humerus.
The knob of the elbow is the:
olecranon of ulna
When taking a pulse at the wrist you palpate the radial artery against the...
styloid of radius
Its the most commonly fractured carpal. It is the largest and most lateral of those in the proximal row.
The pollex refers to digit _____ in the hand; it has _____ phalanges
The socket of the hip is known as the...
Which is the largest of the three fused bones in the coxal bone? It has a large ala.
The smooth part of the femur that accommodates the kneecap is the...
The patellar ligament attaches to this bump on the front of the proximal tibia.
The bony knob on the lateral aspect of the ankle is the fibula's _____
The heel bone
The bone on the far end of the big toe would be the...
distal phalanx of hallux
The A band of the skeletal muscle fiber is _____ and is due to the presence of aligned...
dark; thick filaments of myosin
Perimysium wraps around a...
fascicle of fibers
When a muscle contracts which of the following occurs?
Z discs get closer together
Place events at (and near) the neuromuscular junction in order
Ca+ enters neuron terminal, ACh is released from neuron terminal, Na+ enters muscle = end plate potential, Action Potential spreads down fiber
When an impulse travels down a T tubule it causes...
calcium release from the SR
In skeletal muscle, calcium activates contraction by binding to...
troponin on the thin filament
Which muscle molecule has the critical enzymatic function of splitting a phosphate off
How are neurons and muscle fibers connected in motor units?
A neuron controls multiple fibers; a fiber is controlled by one neuron
Stimulating a muscle at high frequency leads to higher force output due to...
Think about how your triceps work as you're doing pushups. While you're going up they contract _____
Glycolysis is _____ and occurs in the _____ .
Slow twitch fibers within muscles are colored _____ and have _____ mitochondria.
Most of the calcium that starts a smooth muscle contraction comes from the...
outside of the cell
What protein does calmodulin activate to jump start smooth muscle contraction?
The angled fascicles of this muscle run superiorly as they run medially.
internal oblique muscle
This muscle runs superficially down the center of the posterior forearm; its tendons go to the fingers
extensor digitorum muscle
What is the "beard shaving" muscle that tenses the neck's skin and has actions on the lower lip and jaw?
Named for its attachments, this muscle originates on the scapula's crown and inserts on the humerus
What medial hamstring muscle is named for its prominent connection to the tibia behind the knee?
This muscle runs in the back of the leg and bends the big toe
flexor hallucis longus muscle
This muscle extends and adducts the arm
latissimus dorsi muscle
On what bone does the gluteus medius originate?
The most lateral of the quadriceps muscles is the _____ ; it helps _____ the knee.
vastus lateralis; extend
The abdominal muscle running straight from ribs to pubis is the
What term describes a muscle that looks like a feather - with fascicles attaching either side of a central tendon?
In addition to stabilizing the scapula, the infraspinatus also...
laterally rotates the arm
This powerful forearm flexor inserts on the ulna
Serratus anterior inserts on the...
Flexor carpi radialis not only flexes the hand, it also _____ it.
Immovable joints (like sutures) are:
Sac filled with synovial fluid to lessen friction in joint
Which term describes a cartilaginous joint made with hyaline cartilage?
Along how many axes can movement occur at a metacarpophalangeal joint?
Moving the forearm so that the palm is face-up- radius and ulna are parallel
A movement of a body part toward the midline is known as:
Spinning a bone so that its anterior surface faces outward
A rim of fibrocartilage at shoulder socket
Connects the femur to the fibula
lateral collateral ligament
The hip joint is...
Ganglia are clusters of _____ in the _____.
Multiple sclerosis is a disease attacking the myelinating CNS glia known as
What structural class of neurons did not have any dendrites coming off the soma?
These cells influence the chemistry of the CNS; one function is to influence capillaries.
At rest, the inside of the cell is typically...
70 mV more negative than the outside
When negative ions enter a neuron at rest, the result is:
A _____ - _______ channel opens when there is a change to the charge of the membrane.
An excitatory postsynaptic potential is a type of ______ that contributes to _____ of a neuron
graded potential, depolarization
An impulse is typically triggered at the axon hillock. What is the sequence of events? ( 1- EPSPs flow to hillock and combine strength, 2- Voltage-gated channels at hillock open (spike), 3- impulse propagated away from hillock toward terminal, 4- EPSP occur on dendrites)
What is the sequence of events for an action potential? ( 1- hyperpolarization, 2- depolarization, 3- stimulus hits threshold, 4- repolarization)
Starting at rest, what occurs with voltage gated ion channels during an action potential? (1- Na channels are open, K channels closed (cell goes positive), 2- Na and K channels are closed (-70mV), 3- Na channels still closed, K channels still open, (more negative than rest), 4- Na channels inactive, K channels open, (cell returns to rest))
An excitatory event in a neuron would proceed through structures in what order? (1- dendrites, 2- axon, 3- axon terminals, 4- soma)
The time during and after an impulse when another impulse is possible but the cell's threshold is elevated:
relative refractory period
"Saltatory" describes _____ conduction of action potentials down...
Order the events occurring during synaptic communication. (1- Exocytosis of neurotransmitter, 2- Impulse arrives at terminal, 3- neurotransmitter binds to receptor, 4- Voltage gated Ca channels open; Ca enters.)
4, 2, 1, 3
The function of acetylcholinesterase is to:
Rapid-fire inputs at the same synapse can result in:
GABA can open chloride channels (and the ion enters). This results in:
a hyperpolarizing IPSP
Neurotransmitter released into striatum from cells with somas in the substantia nigra (Key for Parkinsons)
Caffeine's main effect is to...
Which type of receptor works through G- proteins and 2nd messengers?
A pathway where few inputs contact many targets and separate brain areas work simultaneously.
divergent parallel processing
The thalamus develops from the...
It connects the 3rd ventricle to the 4th ventricle:
Groove separating the temporal lobe from frontal and parietal lobes.
The primary somatosensory cortex is in the _____ lobe.
In addition to motor and personality functions, the left frontal lobe has an area for speech known as:
What crosses at the decussation of pyramids?
projection fibers descending from motor cortex
Midbrain inputs to the striatum die; signs are rigidity, hand tremor and slow movement
Part of diencephalon and limbic system; involved in autonomic & endocrine control, desires.
The thalamus relays info to cortex. What info is relayed by its MGN (medial geniculate nucleus).
auditory info to temporal lobe
This bump on the back of the midbrain helps govern visual reflexes.
Gland that secretes the hormone melatonin.
Which describes deep sleep - with lots of slow, delta waves?
This sea-horse shaped structure is important for consolidating declarative memories.
The falx cerebri is a sheet of _____ sitting in the _____ fissure.
This large blood vessel sits at the top of the falx cerebri
superior sagittal sinus
The deep groove in between the ventral horns of the spinal cord is the:
anterior median fissure
The dorsal horns and dorsal columns contain neurons with which type of function?
Which tract is part of the CNS pathway controlling fine movements made by our hand muscles?
lateral corticospinal tract
This nerve excites a muscle that pulls the eye laterally.
It runs into the skull's foramen magnum and back out to control neck muscles
Most muscles of expression are governed by this cranial nerve.
Relax. When this nerve fires it helps you rest and digest.
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