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Endo 1 Final - Access
Terms in this set (54)
A rct is not considered unless what 3 things are there?
1. Tooth is restorable
2. Tooth is periodontally sound
3. Tooth is strategic (functional/desired)
What are the 2 objectives of RCTs?
1. To gain access to the pulpal space
2. To maintain strength of the tooth
During a RCT to maintain strength of the tooth what 3 things must be done?
1. Preserve incisal edge
2. Conserve marginal ridges
3. Maintain correct shape, size, and position
What is the general outline form of maxillary anteriors?
Triangular to Ovoid
Where would you generally expect to find the pulp in anteriors?
Center mass of root form
How many percent of the time do mandibular central + lateral incisors have 2 canals?
Where are mandibular incisors narrow at?
You should mark your access bur at what length to avoid perforation?
What are the steps in opening an access to a root pulp? 5
1. Drill outline form
2. Penetrate into pulp
3. Use D16 Endo explorer to check
4. Unroof chamber
5. Refine to straight-line access
What shape is the access for maxillary central incisors?
How much tooth should remain on all sides of the access?
What is the incisal compromise?
You would not get a straight-line access on anterior teeth as that would involve accessing from the facial and create a weakening of the incisal edge and an esthetic issue.
The ideal access for a maxillary central incisor would require or not require a crown?
Where do maxillary lateral incisors often curve towards that can cause it to be very difficult to maintain curve?
What size bur should you use to access maxillary lateral incisors?
#2 round bur
What size bur should you use to access maxillary canines?
#2 or #4 round burs
What is the shape of mandibular incisors access hole?
What size bur should you use?
#2 round bur
Which of the 2 canals would you likely miss by failing to extend your access to the incisal in type 3 mandibular incisors?
If there is a fast break in a radiograph of a mandibular incisor canal, what does this generally indicate?
There are 2 canals
In Weine's Classification, When there is one canal from Pulp chamber to apex, what type is it?
In Weine's Classification, when there are 2 canals from pulp chamber that join prior to apex what type is it?
In Weine's Classification, when there are 2 canals from pulp camber to apex separately, what type is it?
In Weine's Classification, when there is one canal from pulp chamber that divides prior to apex what type is it?
What is the mnmonic for Weine's Classification?
1 = I
2 = O
3 = U
4 = Y
In Maxillary first premolars, how many canals are there usually?
2 canals = 85%
1 Canal = 9%
3 canals = 6%
How many canals do maxillary second premolars contain?
2 canals in at least 35% of cases
If there is a single canal in maxillary second premolars, where is it located?
In the middle
All premolars are very easy to perforate where?
To mesial or distal!
What bur should you use when opening premolars?
#2 bur - width should be no wider than #4 round bur
How would you look for 2 canals in mandibular pre-molars?
1. Look for 4 PDLs
2. Look for a fast-break or fuzzy canal
Where does access occur on ALL posterior teeth?
What shape are maxillary 1st premolar accesses?
Where are the canals to maxillary 1st premolars often located?
Under respective cusp tips therefore needs crown due to infringement of cusps
If there is one canal found in a maxillary 2nd premolar but it is not in the center F-L then what?
There are probably 2 canals
What is the Law of Color Change?
The color of the pulp chamber is always darker than surrounding walls
How many roots/canals do mandibular 1st premolars usually have?
1 canal = 73.5%
2 canals = 19.5%
3 = 1%
What does the Law of Concentricity state?
The walls of the pulp chamber are concentric to the external outline of the tooth at the level of the CEJ
How many roots are often in mandibular canines?
Single canal = 78%
2 Canals = 22%
How long does pulpal anesthesia last for?
What is the worst error you can make at access?
how should all posterior access be shaped occlusal - lingually?
It should Flare occlusally (Y shaped)
What access form should mandibular molars have?
Trapezoidal (w/ rounded angles)
Where should the wider base of the trapezoidal form of mandibular molars be?
When doing the triangular access for mandibular molars back then, which canal could be missed the most?
How many percent of Mandibular molars have 2 Distal canals?
What canal shaped tooth contains 3 or more canals associated by an irregular network of thread-like canals and areas that are variable in size, shape and complexity that are extremely difficult to find and worse to instrument?
How many percent are C-shaped canal variation seen?
What tooth are they often seen in?
2. Mandibular 2nd molars
What canal is the biggest challenge in maxillary molars?
MB2 Canal (95% seen)
How many percent of maxillary molars have 4 canals?
Why is the MB2 canal in maxillary 1st molars so difficult?
3. Time consuming to find, negotiate + shape
When is the Endo-EZE bur used?
To define and shape the pulpal walls after access.
How many percent often are these variations seen for maxillary first molars?
3 roots + 4 canals
3 roots + 3 canals
How many percent often are these variations seen for Maxillary 2nd Molars
3 roots 4 canals
3 roots 3 canals
How many percent often are these variations seen for Mandibular first molars?
1. Mesial 2 canals
2. Mesial 1 canal
3. Distal 1 canal
4. Distal 2 canals
How many percent often are these variations seen for Mandibular 2nd molars?
1. 2 roots + 3 canals
2. 2 roots + 2 canals
3. 1 root + 1 canal
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