South America - Chapter 13

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Terms in this set (...)

Northern Tropics
The Guianas (Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana), Venezuela, & Colombia
Andean Countries:
Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, & Chile
Southern Grasslands
Uruguay, Paraguay, & Argentina
Difference between 3 Guianas
Guyana: former British colony, English official language

Suriname: former Dutch colony- speaks dutch

French Guiana - department of France- speaks french
What do Guianas have in common?
same economic activities - Fishing, Farming & Mining - Guyana is the world's largest exporter of bauxite.
bauxite
mineral used to make aluminum - from hills of Guyana and Suriname
How are the Guianas different from other South American countries?
speak different languages than the rest of South America and have different religions.
mulattoes
people of mixed African and other ancestry - largest people group of French Guiana
Columbia & Venezuela' physical regions/ features
Lowlands, Mountains, & Llanos (grassy plains)
Climate depends on elevation.
Columbia's economy
Depend mostly on one crop: coffee

Heavy drug trade: two illegal crops marijuana and cocaine (coca plant).
Venezuela's economy
Depend mostly on oil - Huge reserves, but non renewable resource.

Farmers grow different crops at different elevations
llanos
Savanah or grassy plains region in Venezuela
cordilleras
parallel mountain ranges of the Andes.
Venezuela's population
Most of population live in mountain valleys -
Columbia's population
Most people live in the valleys between cordilleras (parallel mountain ranges of the Andes)

Most of the farmland is owned by a few wealthy families - rent out small amounts of land at high prices to campesinos (tenant farmers).
The Andean Countries
Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, & Chile -
three regions/areas: Coastal Pains, Highlands, & Tropical Forests
Coastal Plains
Narrow plain along entire Pacific coast

Atacama Desert- the driest place on earth
perfectly preserved ancient artifacts in the Atacama Desert
Highlands
Highland valleys and plateaus lie between cordilleras.

Plateaus have different names in different countries: Peru/Bolivia: altiplano (high plain)
Ecuador: páramos
Tropical Forests
Inland - Called the selva in Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia : Form beginning of rain forest in Amazon basin.
vertical trade
people from villages at different elevations meet to trade crops because people grow crops suited to their climate zone.
Timber line
the boundary above which forest vegetation cannot grow.
Ecuador
Indians: subsistence farming in the highlands.

Mestizos: half of population, work in urban factories or on plantations

Europeans: own the largest farms and factories - most power

Oil in the selva lowlands... most important export.
Peru
Indians: subsistence farming/herding in highlands

Mestizos: live in urban areas or near the coastal plain.

Europeans: few, but control most of country's wealth- most power

Most of population: factories or plantations= low wages
Bolivia
landlocked, without coastal ports or factories

many minerals, but the best ores have already been mined

Most of the population is Indian.

Highlands: subsistence farming or herd alpacas and llamas.
Chile
narrow ribbon along the west coast - The Atacama Desert is uninhabited.

Unlike other Andean countries very few Indians - most are mestizos.

Fruits, vegetables, and wine grapes are produced in the Central Valley - shipped to US and Europe because their growing season is during our winter.
Physical Characteristics Southern Grasslands Countries (Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina)
Great rivers: Region is connected by several large rivers that flow into the Rio de la Plata.(binds southern countries together)

The Plata is an estuary- broad river mouth where flooded river valley meets the sea.

Andes Mountains:

Tropical Lowlands - Gran Chaco (hunting land) - interior lowland region of savanna and dense shrub - mild temperatures

Grasslands: Pampas (temperate grasslands) - breadbasket - grain and gauchos (cowboys)

Patagonia: plateau south of the pampas...
desolate, cold - raise sheep, oil and bauxite
Paraguay
Landlocked- ocean access through the Plata River system. - almost all live in highlands on eastern part of country.

Population denser in highlands

Mestizos: speak Guarani and Spanish

Economy: agriculture - cotton, grains

were ruled by the military for years, but today are democracies with free elections.
Uruguay
Indian - "River of the painted bird"
Mostly rolling grasslands - economy is raising livestock, processing and making wool & leather

Imports most goods...produces no fuel/ few consumer goods.

Large middle class -Mostly Europeans

were ruled by the military for years, but today are democracies with free elections.
Argentina
South America's wealthiest country

Mostly Europeans, live in cities

Buenos Aires: capital/center of industry = heavy air pollution

Ruled by repressive military dictators from the mid-1940s until 1980s. tried to give "appearance" of progress by borrowing money from foreign banks to build dams, factories, and roads.

1982: the military agreed to allow free elections.
estuary
broad river mouth formed where a flooded river valley meets the sea.
piedmont
rolling foothills
pampas
grassland region in Argentina & Uruguay
gaucho
a cowboy who herded cattle in the pampas.
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