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AP Biology Semester Test Study Guide
Unit 1 - 4 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (80)
a concise statement that summarizes the results of many observations and experiments
A well-tested explanation for a wide range of observations or experimental results.
The measurable effect, outcome, or response in which the research is interested.
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
Information describing color, odor, shape, or some other physical characteristic
Data associated with mathematical models and statistical techniques used to analyze spatial location and association.
Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water
A positively charged ion
A negatively charged ion
molecule with an unequal distribution of charge, resulting in the molecule having a positive end and a negative end
Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
A three dimensional polymer made of monomers of amino acids.
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
loss of an enzyme's normal shape so that it no longer functions; caused by a less than optimal pH and temperature
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
The chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid
A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell
Cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
a theory that states that certain kinds of prokaryotes began living inside of larger cells and evolved into the organelles of modern-day eukaryotes
Describes a solution whose solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration inside a cell
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution
Requires NO energy, Movement of molecules from high to low concentration, Moves with the concentration gradient
Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane
Process by which a cell releases large amounts of material
A selectively-permeable phospholipid bilayer forming the boundary of the cells
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
A system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids.
site of protein synthesis
A network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement
Surrounds the nucleolus and DNA. Controls what enters and leaves the nucleus.
All of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism
Catalysts for chemical reactions in living things
A process in which large molecules are broken down
A process in which large molecules are built from small molecules
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
the minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction
reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction
a region on an enzyme that binds to a protein or other substance during a reaction.
induced fit model
enzyme model where the substrate induces the enzyme to alter its shape slightly so it fits better
The place on an enzyme where a molecule that is not a substrate may bind, thus changing the shape of the enzyme and influencing its ability to be active.
An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production
fluid portion of the chloroplast; outside of the thylakoids
a particle of light
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy.
stacks of thylakoids
the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid.
Large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP
A process for synthesizing ATP using the energy of an electrochemical gradient and the ATP synthase enzyme.
lactic acid fermentation
the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates that produces lactic acid as the main end product
Points that provide cytoplasmic channels from one cell to another with special membrane proteins. Also called communicating junctions.
direct contact signaling
Direct signaling can occur by transferring signaling molecules across gap junctions or plasmodesmata between neighboring cells
An open channel in the cell wall of plants through which strands of cytosol connect from adjacent cells
Any molecule that bonds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule.
protein that detects a signal molecule and performs an action in response
a series of relay proteins or enzymes that amplify and transform the signal to one understood by the machinery of the cell
a reaction to a stimulus
Muscle cells or gland cells that carry out the body's response to stimuli.
Feedback that tends to magnify a process or increase its output.
A primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a physiological variable that is being monitored triggers a response that counteracts the initial fluctuation.
A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
Any cells in the body other than reproductive cells
Substance found in eukaryotic chromosomes that consists of DNA tightly coiled around histones
series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
a random error in gene replication that leads to a change
programmed cell death
Regulatory proteins that ensure that the events of cell division occur in the proper sequence and at the correct rate.
protein molecules around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin
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