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Mr. Ward Chemistry Exam Review
Terms in this set (206)
the measure of the amount of matter in an obj
anything that occupies space and has mass
Measure of the gravitational pull on an obj
Law of Conservation of Mass and Energy
Matter and Energy can neither be created nor destroyed in ordinary physical and chemical changes
resistance to change in motion
the substances that react or start in a reaction
the substances that are the result of a chemical reaction
the ability to cause change or do work
the sum total of kinetic energy of the particles in a sample
Blend of two or more kinds of matter; each retains its own composition and properties
a solid that forms, separates from the solution, and sinks to the bottom
pure substance made of only one type of atom
pure substance made of atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded
smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element
smallest unit of a compound
amount of space occupied by an object
ratio of mass to volume (how tightly packed particles are in a substance)
consist of all digits known with certainty plus one final digit which is uncertain or estimated (in a measurement)
List the four states of matter and explain how they are different
Solid - definite volume, definite shape
Liquid - definite volume, no definite shape
Gas - no definite volume, no definite shape
Plasma - high temperature; state of matter where atoms loose their electrons
How are intensive and extensive physical properties different?
An extensive property depends on the amount (volume, mass, length)
Intensive property does not depend on amount present (color, smell, melting point, density)
Would volume be intensive or extensive
Extensive, as you add more the volume increases
For each of the following put P if physical or C if Chemical Property.
Freezes at 0-
• flammable C
• freezes at 0◦C P
• malleable P
For each of the following, put P for physical Change or C for chemical change:
Dry ice sublimating into gas-
Grilling a Steak-
Grinding up a crystal into powder-
Dissolving solt in water-
• iron rusting C
• dry ice sublimating into a gas P
• grilling a steak C
• grinding up a crystal into a powder P
• dissolving salt in water P
What five things indicate that a Chemical Change has occurred
energy change (heat, light, cold), production of a gas, color change, formation of a precipitate, production of light
How is an endothermic reaction different from an exothermic reaction
an endothermic process absorbs heat and feels cold, an exothermic process releases heat and feels hot.
For each of the following, tell if it is an endothermic or exothermic reaction:
an instant hand warmer
an instant cold pack
• an instant hand warmer exothermic
• an instant cold pack endothermic
• ice freezing exothermic (think about it, the heat has to come out of it for it to freeze)
For each of the following tell if it is a homogeneous mixture, an element, or a compound:
• chlorine gas element
• carbon dioxide compound
• sand heterogeneous mixture
• calcium element
• gator-ade homogeneous mixture
How can you tell a metal from a nonmetal?
If it is shiny and reflects heat and light it is a metal. If you hit it with a hammer and is malleable it is a metal. If it shatters and is brittle, it is a nonmetal. If it conducts heat and electricity it is a metal.
What are metalloids?
Metalloids are elements that are on the dividing line between metals and nonmetals. They have some characteristics of both metals and nonmetals.
Give the SI bar unit for each of the following:
• length -meter
• mass -kilogram
• temperature -Kelvin (from which we get Celsius)
• time -second
Convert the following:
• 0.540 dag = 540 cg
• 0.00068 km = 680 mm
• 9800 mg = 9.8 g
• 763 dL = 0.763 hL
• 5024 ng = 5.024 cg
• 0.059 Mm = 0.59 km
• 3.00 L = 3.00 cm³
• 3.0m/hour = 0.0833 cm/second
Calculate the density of matter with a mass of 5.854 g and a volume of 7.57cm^3
A metal bar has the following dimensions: 2.0cm, 4.2cm, 1.2cm, and is found to weigh 12.3g what is its density?
What is the mass of a sample of matter with a density of 6.75g/cm^3 and a volume of 5.0 cm^3?
What is the volume of a sample of matter with a density of 1.95g/cm^3 and a mass of 5.5g?
Perform the following calculations and round to the correct number of sig figs:
• 6.729 + 54.6 =
• 689.54 - 55.2 =
• 6.44 x 0.75 =
• 75.5 x 5.44 =
• 6.729 + 54.6 = 61.3
• 689.54 - 55.2 = 634.3
• 6.44 x 0.75 = 4.8
• 75.5 x 5.44 = 40.8
• = 0.15
What would each of the following numbers be in Scientific Notation?
• 129 000
• 2 100 000 000
• 129 000 1.29 x 10^5
• .00302 3.02 x 10^-3
• 2 100 000 000 2.1 x 10^9
What would each of the following be in positional notation?
• 1 x 107
• 5.2 x 103
• 3.15 x 10 -6
• 1 x 107 10 000 000
• 5.2 x 103 5 200
• 3.15 x 10 -6 0.000 003 15
Greek philosopher who thought up the idea of atoms
Greek philosopher who disagreed with the idea of atoms and most people listened to him
French scientist who worked with gases and came up with the law of conservation of mass. He is sometimes called the "Father of Chemistry".
English scientist who put the idea of atoms together with the information of the time in his atomic theory.
Law of Definite Proportions
a compound contains the same elements in the same proportions by mass regardless of the size of the sample or source. (CO2 and H2O)
Law of Multiple Proportions
if 2 elements combine to form more than one compound, the masses exist in small whole number ratios (H2O, H2O2)
Daltons Atomic Theory
All matter is composed of atoms; Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and atoms of different elements differ; Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed;
Atoms of different elements can combine in simple, whole-number ratios to form chemical compounds; In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged
dense center of an atom which contains the protons and neutrons
subatomic particles which are neutral in charge, have a mass of 1 amu, and are found in the nucleus
-subatomic particles which are positive in charge, have a mass of 1 amu, and are found in the nucleus
the smallest subatomic particles which are negative in charge and found outside of the nucleus
-the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
total number of protons and neutrons
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons (and therefore different masses)
term for an isotope of an element
Avg Atomic Mass
weighted average of the masses of all the naturally occurring isotopes of an element
a counting unit which means avogadro's number (6.02 x 1023)
the mass of one mole of a substance in grams
Proton: Charge, Mass, and Location
+1, 1 amu, found in the nucleus
Neutron: Charge, Mass, Location
neutral, 1 amu, found in the nucleus
Electron: Charge, Mass, Location
-1, 1 amu, found outside of the nucleus in the electron cloud
What is the nuclear symbol for neon-21?
What is Hyphen Notation for 39
What is the molar mass of Gold?
What is the molar mass of lead nitrate(PbNO3)?
What is the molar mass of Calcium Phosphate(Ca3(PO4)2)?
How many atoms are in 2.50 moles of gold?
1.505 x 1024 atoms
What is the mass of 2.75 moles of carbon?
How many moles are in 15.5g of lithium?
How many moles are in 4.25 x 10^25 atoms of helium?
How many atoms are in 6.52 g of boron?
3.63 x 1023 atoms
How many molecules are in 38.o g of water?
1.27 x 1024
What is the mass in grams of 2.50 moles of glucose?
What is the mass in grams, of 1.23 x 10^23 molecules of hydrogen peroxide?
forms of energy that travel through space as waves
number of waves that pass a point every second (measured in Hertz -Hz)
the distance between waves (in meters)
all the different kinds of electromagnetic radiation (such as x-rays, light, and gamma rays) which have different wavelengths
smallest amount of energy that can be gained or lost
the giving off of electrons by certain metals when light shines on them
lowest energy level of an electron
a stream of particles, containing a quantum of energy
a mathematical description of the wave properties of electrons
-the probable location of an electron; a cloud
-found the electron and its charge experimenting with a cathode ray tube
found the nucleus of an atom by shooting positively charged particles at gold foil
stated that objects give off energy in small fixed amounts or quantities, called quantum which was the beginning of quantum theory
developed the model of an atom with the nucleus in the center and electrons orbiting around it in fixed energy levels with the lowest energy closest to the nucleus
used quantum theory (math applied to waves) to explain were the most likely place is to find an electron in an atom
As the frequency of a wave increases, its wavelength _____ and energy____.
Give 4 Examples of Electromagnetic radiation
am radio waves, fm radio waves, microwaves, infrared light, light, ultraviolet light, x-rays, gamma rays
All Electromagnetic ratiation has the same___?Which is?
3 x 10^8 m/sq
Explain the statement, "Light and electrons have a dual wave-particle nature".
They have characteristics of particles(mass, they can knock other things off), and waves(frequencies, wavelengths, they are separated by diffraction grating, the plastic you looked through).
When an electron gains energy by being heated or having an electrical current applied, it jumps to a __________ energy level. As it falls back, it gives off a ____ of light with a specific frequency. This is why elements have unique _____________ spectrums and unique _________ colors.
The frequency of light is 7.9 x 10^-11. What is the wavelength?
5 x 10^26
Planck's equation for the amount of energy in quantum or photon is what?
What is wrong with Bohr's model of the atom?
We do not know exactly where electrons are in an atom or how they move.
What is right about Bohr's model of an atom?
They do have different amounts of energy and the lowest energy levels are closer to the nucleus.
• Heisenberg uncertainty principle says it is impossible to determine both the____ and ____ of an electron or any other particle
Location and Velocity
The wave properties of electrons and other very small particles are described mathematically by______________.
How are quantum numbers like an electrons address?
They go from general to specific and tell the most probable location to find an electron.
Principle quantum - indicates the main ___ or __, which increase in energy farther away from the nucleus
Energy Levels or shells
____________ - indicates the shape of the _orbitals or subshells or sublevels, shapes are named s, p, d, f, in order of increasing energy
Angular momentum quantum #
_____-The axis the orbital is on
Magnetic Quantum #
_____- Indicates how electrons spinning in their orbit
Spin Quantum #
A single orbit can hold__ electrons
Which of the following indicates the s sub level in the third main energy level?
What shell has the lowest energy?
What subshell has the lowest energy?
A Spherical electron cloud surrounding an atomic nucleus would best represent___.
an s orbital
The shortcut formula to determine the number of max electrons in an energy level or shell is ___.
An energy level of n=4 can hold how many electrons
According to the Aufbau principle, an electron occupies the lowest energy level that it can. What does this mean?
This means that you will find electrons in the 1s before you would find them in the 2s. The upper floors won't be filled before the lower ones.
The Pauli Exclusion Principle says that no 2 electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers. Why not?
No two electrons can be in the same place so they cannot have the same four quantum numbers.
What is Hund's rule?
Orbitals of equal energy are occupied by one e- each before any orbital contains a second e and all single e- must have the same spin.
An orbital that would never exist in the quantum description of an atom is _____.
a. 3d b. 8s c. 6d d. 3f
The electron configuration of phosphorus is
1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^3.
a. How many electrons are present?
b. What is the atomic #?
The Halogens are less reactive than the transition elements. T/F
F, more reactive
The metalloids are in the p block of the periodic table. T/F
Mercury, Tungsten, and Vanadium are alkali metals. T/F
Transition metals are generally unable to conduct electricity. T/F
F, Good conductors
Which of the following statements is true?
a. The modern periodic table was developed at the First International Congress of Chemist
b. Mendeleev arranged elements according to atomic number
c. Today's periodic table is arranged by atomic mass.
d. Mendeleev lef "gaps" in his periodic table to account for elements that would later be discovered
D. Mendeleev left gaps
The noble gases are alike in that they all....
a. Are exceptions to the periodic law
b. Were included on Moseley's periodic table.
c. Are rather unreactive
d. Are radioactive at normal temperatures and pressures.
c. Are rather unreactive
In the modern periodic table, elements are ordered......
a. according to decreasing atomic mass
b. according to Mendeleev's original design
c. according to increasing atomic number
d. based on when they were discovered
c. increasing atomic #
The periodic law states that.....
a. no two electrons with the same spin can be found in the same place in an atom.
b. the physical and chemical properties of the elements form a pattern when arranged by increasing atomic number.
c. Electrons exhibit properties of both particles and waves
b. physical and chemical properties form patterns
The most distinctive property of the noble gases is that they are....
d. mostly inert
d. mostly inert
Elements in the same row on the periodic table are said to be in the same ____
Elements in the same group have similar properties because they have the same number of ___
As stated by _____, elements with similar properties appear at regular intervals when they are arranged in order of increasing atomic number.
the periodic law
The periodic table is divided into the following four blocks_____
All of the group 18 elements besides helium are.....
a. noble gases
b. p-block elements
c. d-block elements
d. both a and b.
D. both a and b
Which statement is true of alkali metals....
a. They are mostly unreactive
b. They are found in nature as free elements
c. They are very reactive
C. They are very reactive
Alkaline-earth metals are...
a. Found in nature
b. denser and stronger than alkali metals
c. easier to melt than alkali metals
d. radioactive at normal temps and pressures
B. Denser and stronger than alkali
Which is true of groups 3-12 on the periodic table?
a. They are alkali metals
b. they are more reactive than alkaline-earth metals
c. They are able to conduct electricity
d. They exist as gases at room temp
C. They are able to conduct electricity
Which is true for halogens?
a. They are all liquids at room temp.
b. They are most reactive of the metals
c. They have seven electrons in their outer energy levels.
d. They are all gases
C. They have 7 v.e.
The most reactive groups are __and __
1,17(alkali metals and halogens)
In general, the atomic radii of the main-group elements ___ down a group.
The atomic radii of group 3 elements are generally ___ than the atomic radii of period 6 elements.
The atomic radii of period 2 elements are generally ____ than the atomic radii of period 6 elements
Among main group elements ionization energies generally ____down each period.
In general, ionization energies of the main group elements___ across each period
Which of the following statements are true?
a. The alkali metals have the highest ionization energy of all elements
b. The electrons furthest from the nucleus are the most difficult to remove
c. Nonmetals generally have higher ionization energies than metals
d. The first ionization energy is always higher than the second
C. Nonmetals generally have higher ionization energy than metals
Second ionization energy refers to the....
a. Energy required to combine two atoms.
b. Ionization energy of elements in the second period
c. Periodic trend for ionization energy to increase down groups
d. Energy required to remove a second electron from an atom
D. Energy required to remove a second electron
Which statement below is true?
a. The total positive charge of the nucleus increases when an electron is added to an atom or ion
b. Trends for electron affinities are the same within each group
c. Valence electrons are generally held tightly to the nucleus of an atom
d. The formation of a a cation results in a smaller electron cloud around the nucleus
D. The formation of cations results in a smaller electron cloud
The measure of the ability of an atom in chemical compound to attract electrons is called_____
In general, this ability to attract electrons___ across each period
Chlorine forms ions with a charge of____
Boron forms ions with a charge of _____
The energy required to remove an electron from an atom is its.....
a. electron affinity
c. Electron energy
d. Ionization Energy
D. Ionization Energy
Moving left to right across a period
a. Electron affinity values (increase, decrease)
b. Ionization energy (increases, decreases)
c. Atomic radii ( increase, decrease)
A cation is (larger, smaller) than the original neutral atom
An anion is (larger, smaller) than the original neutral atom
Metals tend to form(anions, cations)
Second and third ionization energies are greater than the first because why?
Its more difficult to remove multiple electrons because the atom is becoming more + and holding on to them
Within the p-block, the elements at the top___ than those at the bottom.
a. have larger radii
b. have smaller radii
c. have lower ionization energy
B. smaller radii
Going down a group, atomic radius...
a. generally increases
b. remains constant
c. generally decreases
A. Generally increases
Atomic radii increasing going down groups occurs because what?
the number of energy levels increases
The number of valence electrons for group 2 elements is_____
The elements with atomic numbers from 57 through 71, and 90-103 in the periodic table are called___.
Inner transition metals
Elements in the d block are call____
The energy change when an electron is acquired by a neutral atom is called___
The measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons is called ____
The energy required to remove and electron from an atom is called
An atom that gains electrons easily has a ____electron affinity value
The number of valence electrons fro group 16 elements is____
one-half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together is the____
An atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge is called an ___
A positive ion is called ____
Negative ion is called____
For each of the following, tell the barge of the ion formed by the atom and the noble gas its configuration will be like.
A. +1, He
B. -2, Ne
C. -2, Ar
D. +3, Ne
How many valence electrons are there in a neutral atom of Se?
Which of the following are noble gases:
K+ S- Ca+2 I-2 Al+3
Ba+2 Na+2 Cl P+3 O-2
K+, Ca+2, Al+3, Ba+2, Cl, O-2
Atoms Form compounds in an attempt to gain____ outer electrons like the _____
8, noble gases
a mutual attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms; binds . the atoms together
ionic bond- the electrical attraction between large numbers of cations and anions
bond formed when two atoms share valence electrons
neutral group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
represents the numbers of each kind of atom in a compound
molecule made up of only two atoms (often the same atom, ex. H2)
the attraction between (+) ions and the surrounding sea of mobile electrons
can be drawn into wire
able be hammered into thin sheets
mixtures of 2 or more elements, at least 1 is a metal (or mixtures of metals)
the distance at which two covalently bonded atoms minimize their potential energy; average distance between 2 bonded
- the energy required to break a bond and form neutral isolated atoms
compounds tend to form so that each atom, by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons, has 8 outer electrons
orbitals of equal energy produced by combining two or more orbitals on the same atom
"valence-shell, electron pair repulsion" is the electrostatic repulsion between valence electron pairs around an atom causes these pairs to be oriented as far apart as possible
• resonance-"the rebels" bonding in molecules that cannot be correctly represented by 1 Lewis structure
2 poles) equal but opposite charges separated by a short distance
attraction between polar molecules
intermolecular attraction between a HYDROGEN atom and an unshared pair of electrons on a more electronegative atom on another molecule
London Dispersion Forces
intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant motion of electrons that creates dipoles
How are the valence electrons different in covalent, ionic, and metallic bonds?
In a covalent bond the valence electrons are shared and can move between the two atoms.
In an ionic bond valence electrons are transferred from one atom to another making one atom more + and one more -.
In a metallic bond, the valence electrons can move from one atom to another and help hold the + ions all together.
What results from covalent, ionic, and metallic bonds?
c=molecule, i=ions, solid pieces of metals.
What does the molecular formula for fructose, C6H12O6 tell you?
That in one molecule of fructose there are always 6 carbon atoms, 12 hydrogen atoms, and 6 oxygen atoms.
How are polar and nonpolar covalent bonds different?
In a nonpolar covalent bond the electrons are shared evenly and spend equal amounts of time near each nuclei.
In a polar covalent bond, the electrons are not shared evenly and end up spending more time closer to one atoms nucleus.
Name the seven elements that are found as diatomic molecules.
hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iondine.
Explain how each of the characteristics of metals is explained by metallic bonding.
Conduct electricity because the mobile electrons allow electrons to move in one side of a metal and out the other.
Conduct heat because the mobile electrons bump into each other and speed each other up
Luster and high reflectivity because the valence electrons are mobile they can easily absorb light waves and then immediately release it, reflecting the light.
Ductil and Malliable Metals can change shapes because the electrons can move and hold the + ions together.
Why is gold a softer metal than iron?
The strength of metallic bonding varies with: the size of the ion (smaller-stronger) and the number of valence electrons (more-stronger)
What is brass?
an alloy made of zinc and copper
Why do people make alloys?
They often have superior properties such as being a stronger, harder metal or not corroding (rusting
Why do atoms bond(what happens to their Potential energy)?
Atoms do not want to expend any more energy than they have to. They all want to decrease the potential energy of the combined atoms.
Atoms of most main-group elements form bonds so that the number of electrons in the outermost energy levels of each atom is:
Which has the greatest bond length, a single, double, or triple bond?
Which has the greatest bond energy, a single, double, or triple bond?
In the correct Lewis structure for water, how many unshared pairs of electrons will oxygen have?
Why is water always a bent molecule?
Because oxygen has two pairs of unshared (lone) electrons that will push the hydrogens together.
What theory explains why water is bent?
VSEPR theory (valence shell electron pair repulsion)
Explain why water molecules hang on to each other?
The oxygen atom does not share evenly with the hydrogen atoms resulting in a polar molecule. When one water molecule is near another the opposite charges of the dipoles attract each other.
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