How individuals physically present themselves in stance. It is reflected in the alignment of the body.
Lower crossed syndrome
A postural distortion syndrome characterized by an anterior tilt to the pelvis and lower extremity muscle imbalances.
Upper crossed syndrome
A postural distortion syndrome characterized by a forward head and rounded shoulders with upper-extremity muscle imbalances.
Pronation distortion syndrome
A postural distortion syndrome characterized by foot pronation and lower extremity muscle imbalances.
Foot and ankle, Knee,
Lumbo-pelvic-hip complex (LPHC),
Shoulders Head/cervical spine
Kinetic chain checkpoints
Foot/ankles: straight and parallel, not flattened or externally rotated
Knees: In line with toes, not adducted or abducted
LPHC:Pelvis level with both anterior superior iliac, spines in same transverse plane
Shoulders: Level, not elevated or rounded
Head: Neutral position, not tilted or rotated
Foot/ankle: neutral position, leg vertical at right angle to sole of foot.
Knees: neutral position, not flexed or hyperextended
LPHC: pelvis in neutral position, not anteriorly (lumbar extension) or posteriorly rotated (lumbar flexion).
Shoulders: normal kyphotic curve, not excessively rounded
Head: neutral position, not in excessive extension ("jutting" forward)
Foot/ankle: heels are straight and parallel, not overly pronated
Knees: neutral position, not adducted or abducted
LPHC: pelvis level with both posterior superior iliac spines in same transverse plane.
Shoulders/scapulae: level, not elevated or protracted (medial borders essentially parallel and approximately 3 to 4 inches apart)
Head: neutral position neith tilted nor rotated
The rate of muscle recruitment and the timing of muscular contractions within the kinetic chain.
The main factors that cause postural imbalance include the following:
Habitual movement patterns
Altered movement patterns from repetitive movements.
Altered movement patterns from injury
Altered movement patterns from surgery
Altered movement patterns from incompletely rehabilitated injuries.