Like this study set? Create a free account to save it.

Sign up for an account

Already have a Quizlet account? .

Create an account

Static posture

How individuals physically present themselves in stance. It is reflected in the alignment of the body.

Dynamic poster

How an individual is able to maintain posture while performing functional tasks.


The connective tissue in and around muscles and tendons.

Muscle imbalance

Alteration in the functional relationship between pairs or groups of muscles.


Restricted motion.

Lower crossed syndrome

A postural distortion syndrome characterized by an anterior tilt to the pelvis and lower extremity muscle imbalances.

Upper crossed syndrome

A postural distortion syndrome characterized by a forward head and rounded shoulders with upper-extremity muscle imbalances.

Pronation distortion syndrome

A postural distortion syndrome characterized by foot pronation and lower extremity muscle imbalances.

Foot and ankle, Knee,
Lumbo-pelvic-hip complex (LPHC),
Shoulders Head/cervical spine

Kinetic chain checkpoints

Anterior view

Foot/ankles: straight and parallel, not flattened or externally rotated
Knees: In line with toes, not adducted or abducted
LPHC:Pelvis level with both anterior superior iliac, spines in same transverse plane
Shoulders: Level, not elevated or rounded
Head: Neutral position, not tilted or rotated

Lateral view

Foot/ankle: neutral position, leg vertical at right angle to sole of foot.
Knees: neutral position, not flexed or hyperextended
LPHC: pelvis in neutral position, not anteriorly (lumbar extension) or posteriorly rotated (lumbar flexion).
Shoulders: normal kyphotic curve, not excessively rounded
Head: neutral position, not in excessive extension ("jutting" forward)

Posterior view

Foot/ankle: heels are straight and parallel, not overly pronated
Knees: neutral position, not adducted or abducted
LPHC: pelvis level with both posterior superior iliac spines in same transverse plane.
Shoulders/scapulae: level, not elevated or protracted (medial borders essentially parallel and approximately 3 to 4 inches apart)
Head: neutral position neith tilted nor rotated


The rate of muscle recruitment and the timing of muscular contractions within the kinetic chain.

The main factors that cause postural imbalance include the following:

Habitual movement patterns
Altered movement patterns from repetitive movements.
Altered movement patterns from injury
Altered movement patterns from surgery
Altered movement patterns from incompletely rehabilitated injuries.

Janda's postural distortion syndromes:

Lower crossed syndrome
Upper crossed syndrome
Pronation distortion syndrome

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

Voice Recording