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CHAPTER 3 ANATOMY TEST
Terms in this set (62)
Name the four elements that make up the bulk of living matter
hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen
Name the single most abundant material or substance in living matter
Name the trace element most important for making bones hard
name the element, found in small amounts in the body, that is needed to make hemoglobin for oxygen transport
What are the five functions common in all cells?
taking nutrients, reproducing, growing, excretion, and reacting to outside change
list the three different cell shapes
cuboidal, squamus, columnar
Name the fluid, similar to seawater, that surrounds and bathes all body cells
the external boundary of the cell that confines cell contents, regulates entry and exit of materials
located often in white blood cells, breaks down bodies which are non usable or foreign to the cell
scattered throughout cell, controls release of energy from foods and forms ATP
projections of the plasma membrane which increase the membrane surface area
located usually close to nucleus; "traffic director" of cell that packages proteins -> looks like a stack of flattened membranous sacs
located in the center of the cell, control center containing DNA that tells the cell what to make
two rod shaped bodies near the nucleus that directs formation of the mitotic spindle
small round ball in middle of nucleus that is where ribosomes are assembled
located in cytoplasm, responsible for cholesterol synthesis, breakdown of fat, metabolism, and detox of drugs
found in cytoplasm, covered in ribosomes, membrane "factory" which is where basically all building materials of cell membrane are formed
attached to membrane systems or scattered in the cytoplasm-synthesizes proteins
scattered throughout nucleus; condenses to form chromosomes
scattered in cytoplasm; detoxifies alcohol, hydrogen etc.
chemical substances which may or may not be present in a cell; these are stored nutrients including fat cells, melanin, and mucus
What are the four main types of tissues?
epithelial, muscular, connective, and nervous
Where is the epithelial tissue found?
body coverings, body linings, and glandular tissues
What are the functions of the Epithelial tissues?
protection, absorption, filtration, and secretion
What is the free surface of epithelial tissue called?
what is the lower surface of the epithelial tissue bound by?
Is epithelial tissue vascular or avascular?
what is simple epithelium? stratified?
single layered...multiple layers
simple squamous epithelium
usually forms membranes, lines body cavities, and lines lungs and capillaries; single layer of flat cells
simple cuboidal epithelium
single layer of cube-like cells with common glands and their ducts- forms walls of kidney tubules and covers ovaries
simple columnar epithelium
single layer of tall cells often including goblet cells which produce mucus; lines digestive tract
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
single layer of cells which looks like multiple layers; all cells rest on basement membrane, often ciliated-may function in absorption or secretion
stratified squamus epithelium
cells at the FREE EDGE are flattened; found as protective covering where friction is common (skin, mouth, esophagus)
stratified cuboidal epithelium
two layers of cuboidal cells-found in ducts of large glands
stratified columnar epithelium
SURFACE CELLS are columnar; found mainly in ducts of large glands
found in urinary tract, shape of cells depends on amount of stretching
Ductless, secretes hormones
empty through ducts to epithelial surface- includes sweat and oil glands
most abundant and widely distributed tissues; some are vascular some (tendons, ligaments) are avascular
functions of connective tissues
binds body tissues together, supports body, and provides protection
non living material that surrounds living cells and is produced by cells present in connective tissue
What are the two main elements of extracellular matrix?
ground substance and fibers
mostly water along with adhesion and polysaccharide molecules
what are the three types of fibers?
collagen, elastic, and reticular
(bone)composed of bone cells in lacunae cavities; very hard matrix of calcium slats and collagen fivers used to protect and support the body
most common cartilage composed of abundant collagen fibers, rubbery matrix- entire fetal skeleton composed of this
provides elasticity (example-ear)
highly compressible (cushion like discs btwn vertebrae)
Dense connective tissue
(tendons and ligaments) main matrix element is collagen fibers, cells are fibroblasts
loose connective tissue
areolar connective tissue; most widely distributed connective tissue; soft/pliable/ contains all fiber types and can soak up excess fluid
(fat)matrix is an areolar tissue in which fat globules predominate, function to insulate body, protect organs, and serve as sight for fuel storage
Reticular connective tissue
delicate network of interwoven fibers that forms internal supporting network of lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow)
(vascular tissue) blood cells surrounded by nonliving fluid matrix plasma, fibers are visible during clotting, functions as transport vehicle for cardiovascular system
What are the three types of muscle tissue?
skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
muscle attached to bones, can bee controlled voluntarily, cells are striated and have more than one nucleus
found only in heart walls, function is to pump blood (involuntary), cells attached to intercalated disks and are striated- uninucleate
smooth (visceral) muscle
involuntary muscle surrounding hollow organs- no visible striations, uninucleate; contracts sssllllooooowwwwlllyyyyy
a wavelike series of contractions that keeps food moving down through the small intestine
function is to send electrical impulses to other areas of the body: irritability=dendrites and conductivity=axons
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Anatomy Chapter 8: Muscles
Bones of the Human Body
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