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Biology Photosynthesis Test
Terms in this set (19)
1.A. What is ATP and what is its role in the cell?
ATP is an abbreviation for the compound adenosine triphosphate. Cells use ATP to store and release energy.
How does the structure of ATP make it an ideal source of energy for the cell?
ATP can easily release and store energy by breaking and re-forming the bonds between its phosphate groups.
Explain how ADP and ATP are each like a battery. Which one is "partially charged" and which one is "fully charged?" Why?
ADP and ATP are like batteries because they store energy in the chemical bonds they contain. ADP has only two phosphate groups (and fewer bonds), so it's like a partially charged battery. ATP has three phosphate groups, so it is like a fully charged battery and has more bonds available for energy storage.
What is the ultimate source of energy for plants?
How do heterotrophs obtain energy? How is this different from how autotrophs obtain energy?
Heterotrophs obtain energy by feeding on other living things. Autotrophs, by contrast, make their own food.
Why are decomposers, such as mushrooms, considered heterotrophs and not autotrophs?
Decomposers consume the remains of living things for energy and cannot make their own food.
Why are pigments such as chlorophyll needed for photosynthesis?
Pigment, such as chlorophyll, is needed for photosynthesis because they absorb the sun's rays in order to create food for the organisms.
How well would a plant grow under pure yellow light? Explain your answer.
A plant would grow barely grow, if at all, in yellow light because chlorophyll doesn't absorb light in the green regions of the light spectrum which also includes yellow.
What is the function of NADPH?
The function of NADPH is to carry high-energy electrons, produced through light absorption from chlorophyll, to chemical reactions in other parts of the cell.
How is light energy converted into chemical energy during photosynthesis?
Light energy is converted into chemical energy through two a long list of reactions. First are the light dependent reactions which use water and sunlight to create energy-rich compounds. Then come the light-independent reactions by taking carbon dioxide and making carbon-containing sugars and other energy rich carbohydrates.
How would photosynthesis be affected if there were a shortage of NADP+ in the cells of plants?
Photosynthesis would be affected from a lack of NADP+ because NADPH wouldn't be produced and the other parts of the cell won't get energy, killing it eventually.
Describe the overall process of photosynthesis, including the reactants and products.
Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into high-energy sugars and chlorophyll.
Summarize what happens during the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis.
The light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce oxygen and con- vert ADP and NADP+ into the energy carri- ers ATP and NADPH.
Put the events of the light- dependent reactions in the order in which they occur and describe how each step is dependent on the step that comes before it.
Light energy is absorbed by electrons in the pigments and water molecules are split into H+ ions, oxygen, and electrons.Highenergy electrons move down the electron transport chain, where energy from the electrons is used to pump H+ ions into the thylakoid space. NADP+ molecules pick up the high-energy electrons along with H+ ions to become NADPH.H+ ions in the thylakoid space pass through ATP synthase in the thylakoid membrane, causing the ATP synthase base to rotate and produce ATP.
What is the Calvin cycle?
light-independent reactions in which ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions are used to produce high-energy sugars.Melvin Calvin discovered it.
List at least three differences between the light-dependent and light-independent reactions of photosynthesis.
The light-dependent reactions require light and water, occur in the thylakoids, and produce ATP and NADPH. The light-independent reactions require carbon dioxide, occur in the stroma, and produce high-energy sugars.
What are the three primary factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis?
temperature, light intensity, availability of water
What happens during the light dependent reactions
Light dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce oxygen and convert ADP & NADP+ into energy carriers ATP & NADPH
What happens during light independent reactions
ATP & NADPH from light dependent reactions are used to produce high energy sugars
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