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Neuroscience and Physiology
Terms in this set (191)
Equation for Cardiac Output
Heart Rate X Stroke Volume
Another word for Systole
Another word for Diastole
Blood flows down a what?
What ventricle in heart pumps blood around entire body?
What valve in heart is a bicuspid valve?
What valves in heart have 3 semi-lunar valves?
Aorta and Pulmonary Valves
How long is the cardiac cycle
0.8 s for contraction and relaxation
Circulation pressure in the major arteries
80 mm Hg
Circulation pressure in the START of capillary bed
35 mm Hg
Circulation pressure in the END of capillary bed
15 mm Hg
Circulation pressure in the great veins
5 mm Hg
What prevents backflow of blood in the large veins
3 semi-lunar valves
Left side of the heart pumps oxygenated blood where?
Aorta and thence around the body
Right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood where?
Pulmonary artery and into lungs
How much thicker is the wall of the left ventricle to the right?
What separates the right ventricle from the left atrium?
Mitral (bicuspid) valve
What separates the right ventricle from the right atrium?
The entrance to the aorta and pulmonary artery contain?
Valves of Valsalva
What valve closing makes the "LUB" sound in a heart beat?
What valve closing makes the "DUB" sound in a heart beat?
Equation for Mean Arterial Blood Flow
1/3 Pulse Pressure + Diastolic Pressure
Large diameter of the conducting cells allows what?
Faster conduction velocity
Does heart empty completely on ventricular contraction?
No, residual volume of 70 ml
A secondary upstroke in the descending part of a pulse tracing corresponding to the transient increase in aortic pressure upon closure of the aortic valve—called also dicrotic wave.
Ventricles contract after what?
The atria contract first
Left and right atria contract how?
Left and right ventricles contract how?
Myogenic heartbeat originates where?
Pacemaker cells of the sinuatrial node
What ensures rapid conduction of excitation and synchronous contraction?
Rudimentary conducting bundle in the 2 atria
What nerve slows heart rate by action on the SA node?
What nerve slows conduction through the A-V nodes with minimal action on the ventricles?
What hormone/neurotransmitter increases heart rate by action on SA node?
Adrenaline aka Epinephrine
Is one which affects the conduction speed in the AV node, and subsequently the rate of electrical impulses in the heart
What tissue layer in heart are the Purkinje Fibers located
These fibers consist of specialized cardiomyocytes
Purkinje fibers are arranged where?
Septum into the bundle of His
Capillary beds run how in relation to one another
Where in body is only place that capillaries run in series?
Glomerulus and liver
Which side of heart has lower pressure? Why?
Right side due to pumping blood to lungs
Constriction in arterioles effects blood flow how?
Slows velocity of blood
What vessels have great surface area?
Why does pressure drop a lot in the arterioles?
So capillaries don't burst
What layer of cells is around every vessel
Which vessel are wider and have less smooth muscle
Greater radius of vessel does what?
Larger flow due to r to the fourth
Arteries will shrink to do what?
Slow flow of blood
Vasodilation does what to pressure?
Vasoconstriction does what to pressure?
Osmotic pressure can cause fluid to be pulled where...Starling Forces
Into the vessel
Starling forces... Hydrostatic pressure can push fluid where?
Out of vessel
Capillaries with windows n tissue to allow fluid to leak out
Higher blood flow causes....
When blood flow is constricted and then is over-compensated?
Mean Arterial Blood Pressure Equation (MAP)
Cardiac Output X Peripheral Resistance
Blood Flow Through an Organ Equation
Flow = (MAP -Venous Pressure) / Resistance
Are sensors located in the blood vessels of all vertebrate animals. They are a type of mechanoreceptor sensory neuron that is excited by stretch of the blood vessel.
A sensory cell or organ responsive to chemical stimuli
What can be driven by CO2 levels to affect blood pressure?
Bleeding will cause increase in what to maintain pressure and flow
Tissues produce more metabolites consuming more oxygen causes
What happens to CO2 and O2 in active hyperaemia?
Decrease in O2 and increase in CO2
What compound is released in result of injury and vasodilation?
Acts on alpha receptors to cause vasoconstriction
Acts on beta receptors in smooth muscle of lung to cause vasodialtion
Hormone that is a vasoconstrictor and is due to blood loss
Hormone that is a vasoconstrictor and due to blood loss and tries to maintain homeostasis of blood volume
Hormones produces locally endothelial cells within the blood vessels or cells close by
Gas exchange occurs here
These surround the alveoli to allow gas exchange
Vessels whose walls are a single epithelial cell thick
Macrophages are defense cells where to keep lungs clean
The nose, mouth, trachea, and bronchi/bronchioles are what conducting zone of lungs
Anatomic Dead Zone (No gas exchange)
Respiratory bronchioles and alveoli are what zone of lungs
Respiratory Zone of Lungs ( Gas exchange occurs)
Air moves into lungs due to what changes in volume and pressure?
Volume increases and pressure falls
CO2 exits the lungs due to what changes in volume and pressure?
Volume decreases and pressure rises
Vital Capacity of Lungs decreases with what?
Age and/or smoking
With each breath how much NEW atmospheric air enters the alveoli?
~350 ml of new air
What characteristic of gas in constant regardless of pressure?
How much O2 is in 1L of plasma at 100 mm Hg
What color is hemoglobin when O2 is bound ? Without O2 bound?
Red with it bound and dark purplish red when not bound
Hemoglobin saturates with oxygen in what kind of curve?
Hemoglobin carries how much )2 per liter of arterial blood?
Acidity does what to % hemoglobin saturation?
Drops % hemoglobin saturation
Basicity does what to % hemoglobin saturation?
Increases % hemoglobin saturation
Lactic acid produced during exercise causes what to happen to hemoglobin?
Hemoglobin releases O2 more readily in cells due to increase in acidity
Warmer temperature affects hemoglobin how?
Hemoglobin will dissociates more from O2 to release it
Part of brain that controls rhythmic breathing?
Respiratory Rhythmicity Centre in Medulla Oblongata
These are in the Medulla Oblongata and drive the motor neurons that innervate the diaphragm and intercostal muscles
What innervate the inspiratory neurons?
Time intervals for inhalation and exhalation?
Inhalation = 2s
Exhalation = 3s
These get the highest blood flow due to small size
These respond to increase in arterial partial pressure of CO2 and increase their activity
Is central chemoreceptor response in response to CO2 or H+ concentration increase?
These are influenced by changes in arterial partial pressure of O2 and H+ concentration in blood
Is CO2 or O2 more important in directing respiratory rate?
Respiratory response is to produce more what during anaerobic metabolism?
CO2 is produced
What oscillations change during anaerobic metabolism?
The oscillations between O2 and CO2 pressures
Released in response to accentuated oscillations in O2 and CO2 pressure
This rises linearly with O2 and CO2 production
Hormones that are released during exercise
Nor-adrenaline and adrenaline
Cardio vasculature response to exercise is what to maintain blood pressure
What happens to systolic and diastolic times?
Systolic increases and diastolic decreases to get more oxygen to limbs
Heart vessel diameter changes how during exercise?
It slightly decreases
This system shifts blood glow from other organs to the exercising muscles
Baroreceptor reflex helps maintain what during exercise, ISN'T the driving force
Arterial Blood Pressure
How is venous return changed during exercise
These are signs of what:
Sweating, palor, cold skin, rapid pulse
What mediates the bodies response to hemorrhaging
Body response to hemorrhage is what feedback loop
This neurotransmitter innervates the thoracic organs, skin and abdominal organs
Nor-adrenaline aka norepinephrine
This hormone causes dry mouth, hearing changes and blood flow changes
The release of noradrenaline is example of what kind of sympathetic system mediation
The release of adrenaline is example of what kind of sympathetic system mediation
Blood pools where in relation to heart
Below heart level
Hydrostatic pressure done against wall of veins leads to what?
Pulse rate is higher when standing or lying flat?
What happens to astronauts baroreceptor reflex?
It resets due to weightlessness
These hormones can travel large distances in body
These hormones can travel to neighboring cells
These hormones can act on the same cell
A single cell secretes how many hormones?
Can a hormone be secreted by more than one gland?
This determine what:
Rate of Secretion
Blood concentration of hormones
This determines what:
Rates of inactivation and excretion
Blood concentration of hormones
This determines what:
Removal from the circulation by the liver or kidneys
Blood concentration of Hormones
This determines what:
Endocytosis of peptide hormone receptor complexes
Blood concentration of Hormones
Steroids are derivatives of what?
Steroids are soluble in what?
Protein bound hormones are resistant to what enzymatic activity
Degradation and excretion by enzymes
Catecholamine peptide hormones are excreted rapidly and hydrolyzed by what?
How long do Catecholamine peptide hormones stay in the body?
Minutes to hours
Occurs when a high extracellular concentration of the hormone is maintained for some time
Number of target cell receptors for hormones decreases during?
Occurs when cells exposed for a long period of time to very low concentrations of a hormone develop more receptors
Increased sensitivity of hormone receptors occurs in what kind of regulation?
If one hormone induces a loss of another's receptors it is a?
When Hormone A must be present for hormone B to exert a max effect
What serves as the basis for how much and what to have in a cell
Receptors for peptides and catecholamines are proteins where on target cell
A membrane bound enzyme found in all mammalian tissues
What is the first messenger of the endocrine system?
Second messengers of the endocrine system
This situation is when hypothalamic releasing hormone act oh hypothalamic receptors to inhibit their release
Ultrashort Loop Feedback Mechanisms
Signals for the hypothalamus are provided by the anterior pituitary hormones and only occurs if target organ is no longer
Short Loop Feedback Mechanism
Hormones synthesized in the target cells act on the anterior pituitary or on hypothalamic receptors to inhibit production
Long Loop Feedback Mechanisms
Hormone that causes production of hypertonic urine and increase in systemic mean arterial blood pressure
Anti-Diuretic Hormone, ADH
Hormone releases as part of suckling reflex
Hormone that causes contraction of smooth muscle cells and smooth muscle breast duct cells to enhance milk flow
Hormone that causes breast duct development in puberty
Hormones that cause breast alveoli development
Progesterone and Prolactin
Hormone that stimulates breast milk production by alveolar cells
Follicular Stimulating Hormone acts on sertoli cells in males to produce what
Luteinizing hormone aka lutrpoin acts on Leydig cells to produce what
Inhibin acts on what to stop sperm production
Follicular Stimulating Hormone
Gonadotropin releasing Hormone acts on what two other hormones
FSH and LH
Follciular Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone
Granulosa cells develop LH receptors to inhibit what
Granulosa Cells combine with thecal cells to produce what hormone
3 Phases of Female Cycle
Follicular Phase, Ovulation, Luteal Phase
ADH, Oxytocin, Oestrogen, Prolactin and Progesterone are produced where
the 6 Hypothalamic Releasing Factors
GnRH, GHRH, TRH, CRH, Dopamine,
Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone stimulates release of what?
LH and FSH
Growth Hormone releasing hormone stimulates release of what?
Growth Hormone, GH
Somatostatin inhibits release of what?
Thryrotropin Hormone increases release of what?
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
Corticotropin Releasing Hormone increases release of what?
Corticotropin or ACTH
Dopamine decreases what?
The 6 major Anterior Pituitary Hormones
GH, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH, Prolactin
Adrenal Complex releases what
Cortisol and Aldosterone
Cortisol inhibits what by acting on the anterior pituitary
Too much ACTH
ACTH acts on the hypothalamus to inhibit what?
Too much Corticotropin releasing hormone
Binding of Iodide and Tyrosyl residue produces what
3-MIT and 3,5-DIT
What happens to iodide once in thyroid cell
Oxidized by H2O2
In Thyroidal Hypothyroidism, the thyroid doesn't do what properly
Doesn't produce TSH
In Hypothalamic hypothyroidism the hypothalamus doesn't do what?
Doesn't produce TRH to get process going
In pituitary hypothyroidism, what is done
TSH isn't produced
Without TSH produced what else isn't produced as result
T3 and T4
Lung maturation in utero is controlled by what hormone
Bone maturation in infants is controlled by what hormone
Neonatal brain development is controlled by what hormone
Infant growth by enhancing growth hormone and insulin like growth factor is controlled by what hormone
Increase in beta-adrenergic receptor quantity and sensitivity is controlled by what hormone
Increased cardiac muscle contractility on Ca+ and Na+ exchange is controlled by what hormone
Greater force of contraction =
Greater speed of contraction =
What is increased during heat production as a result from thyroid hormone
Na+/K+ ATPase action
Parathyroid hormone increases what about osteoclasts
Calcitonin has what effect on osteoclastic activity
Osteoblasts do what?
make more bone
Osteoclasts do what?
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