Unit 5, Hot and Cold War
Combined chapters of 17 through 20.
Terms in this set (89)
A country dominated politically and economically by another nation, especially by the Soviet Union.
Term coined by Winston Churchill descrbe the devision between Communist and non-Communist life.
The competition that developed after World War II between the United States and the Soviet Union for power and influence in the world, lasting until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.
American policy of resisting further expansion of Communism around the world.
Harry Truman's 1947 speech before a joint session of Congress, calling for the United States to take a leadership role in the world, and declaring that he United States would support nations threatened by communism.
Program of American economic assistance to Western Europe, anounced in 1947.
Operation that moved supplies into West Berlin by American and British planes during the Soviet blockade in 1948-1949.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
1949 alliance of nations that agreed to band together in the event of war and to support and protect each nation involved.
The principle of mutual military assistance among nations.
Military alliance between the Soviet Union and nations of Eastern Europe, formed in 1955.
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
Established in 1938 to investigate disloyalty in the United States.
Group of people in the film industry who were jailed for refusing to answer congressional questions regarding Communist influence in Hollywood.
List that circulate among employers, begining in 1947, containing the names of persons who should not be hired.
Passed by Congress in 1952, this law reaffirmed the quota system that had been established for each country in 1924.
Latitude line that divided North and South Kores at approximately the midpoint of the peninsula.
Conflict over the future of the Korean peninsula, fought between 150 and 1953 and ended in a stalemate.
The military establishment as it developed links to the corporate and scientific communities, employing 3.5 million Americans by 1960.
Term usedto describe Senator Joseph McCarthy's anti-Communist smear tactics.
A contest between nations to gain weapons superiority.
The policy of making the military power of the United States and its allies so strong that no enemy would attack for fear of retaliation.
A 1956 term used by Secretary of State John Dulles to describe a policy of risking war in order to protect national interests.
Intercontinental ballastic missile
The first artificial satellite to orbit Earth, launched by the Soviets in 1957.
A 1960 incident in which the Soviet military used a guided missile to shoot down an American U-2 spy plane over Soviet territory.
A government that exerts total control over the nation and citizens' lives.
Political philosophy that emphasizes the importance of the nation or an ethnic group, and the supreme authority of the leader over that of the individual.
In political terms, the process of removing enemies and undesirable individuals from power.
An extreme form of fascism shaped by Adolf Hitler's fanatical ideas about German nationalism and racial superiority.
In World War II; Germany, Italy, and Japan.
Policy of giving into a competitor's demands in order to preserve the peace.
Kind of warfare emphasizing rapid and mechanized movement; used by Germany during World War II.
Movement in France that opposed German occupation durning World War II.
In World War II; the alliance of Great Britian, The United States, The Soviet Union, and other nations.
Situation in 1931, when Japanese troops, claiming that Chinese soldiers had tried to blow up railway line, took matters in to their own hands by capturing several southern Manchurian cities and by continuing to take over the country even after Chinese troops had withdrawn.
A supposedly independent country under the control of a powerful neighbor.
A 700-miles-long highway linking Burma to China.
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere (GEACPS)
As announced in 1940 by Japan's prime minister, the areaextending from Manchuria to the Dutch East Indies in which Japan would expand its influence.
1939 laws designed to keep the United States out of future wars.
Cash and Carry
World War II policy requiring nations at war to pay cash for all nonmilitary goods and to be responsible for transporting the goods from the United States.
America First Committee (AFC)
Group formed in 1940 by isolationists to block further aid to Great Britain.
1941 law that authorized the President to aid any nation whose defense he believed was vital to American society.
Selective Training and Service Act
1940 law requiring all males aged 21-36 to register for military service.
Term used for American soldiers in Warld War II, devised from the term "Government Issue."
Office of War Mobilization
Federal agency formed coordinate issues related to war production during World War II.
A type of large, sturdy merchant ship built in World War II.
A home vegetable garden created to boost food production during World War II.
Agreement signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill in 1941 outlining the two nations' aid.
Method of aerial bombing in which large number of bombs are dropped over a wide area.
Code name for the Allied invasion of France on 6 June 1944.
Battle of the Bulge
World War II battle in which German forces launched a final counterattack in the west.
Hostility or discrimination toward Jews.
Nazi-Germany's systematic attempt to murder all European Jews.
A place where political prisoners are confined, usually under harsh conditions.
The name given to the night of violance on 9 November 1938 when Nazi storm troopers loted and destroyed Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues and arrested thousands of Jews in Germany and Austria.
An area of Warsaw sealed off by the Nazis to confine the Jewish population, forcing them into poor , unsanitary conditions.
1942 conference in Germany concerning the plan to murder all European Jews.
Organized killing on an entire poeple.
In World War II, a German camp created solely for the purpose of mass murder.
War Refugee Board (WRB)
Federal agency created in 1944 to try to help people threatened with murder by the Nazis.
Series of trials in 1945 conducted by an International Military Tribunal in which former Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, and war crimes.
Bataan Death March
Brutal march of America and Filipino prisoners by Japanese soldiers in 1942.
A set of international standards of conduct for treating prisoners of war, established in 1929.
Battle of the Coral Sea
1942 World War II battle between American and Japanese aircraft.
Battle of Midway
1942 World War battle between the United States and Japan, the turning point in the war in the Pacific.
Battle of Gualacanal
1942-1943 World War II battle between the United States and Japan.
A military strategy used during World War II that involved selectively attacking specific enemy-held islands and bypassing others.
Battle of Leyte Gulf
1944 World War II naval battle between the United States and Japan.
In World War II, a Japanese suicide plane
Battle of Iwo Jima
1945 World War II battle between the United States and Japan (19 Feb. - 26 Mar.).
Battle of Okinawa
1945 World War II battle between the United States and Japan (1 Apr. - 22 Jun.).
Secret American program during World War II to develop an atomic bomb.
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
Organization founded by pacifists in 1942 to promote racial equality through peaceful means.
A term used in 1942 to describe Mexican farm laborers brought in the United States.
A Spanish-speaking neighborhood.
A Japanese-American whose parents were born in Japan.
Per capita income
Average annual income per person.
Corporation made up of three or more unrelated business.
A business that contracts with a large parent company to offer certain goods and service.
A tiny circiut device invented in 1947 that amplifies, controls, and generates electrical signals.
Dramatic increase in birthrate, especially in the years following World War II.
Music popular in the 1950s that grew out of rythem and blues.
In the 1950s, a person who criticized American society as apathetic and conformist.
The social and economic transition from wartime to peacetime.
Law passed by Congress in 1947 that allowed the President to declare an 80-day cooling-off period when strikes impacted industries that affected the national interest and required strikers to return to work while the government conducted a study of the situation.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower's approach to government, described as "conservation when it comes to money, liberal when it comes to human beings."
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Created in 1958 by the U.S. government as an independent agency for space exploration.
National Defense Education Act
1958 measure designed to improve science and mathematics instruction in the schools.
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