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Speech Sound Disorders Quizzes
Terms in this set (106)
Caleb's speech can be difficult to understand. He is 4;4 years and his preschool teacher suspects that he has a speech sound disorder. This means that Caleb has:
difficulty perceiving, phonologically representing and/or articulating speech, impacting his speech intelligibility and acceptability
Prevalence reports about speech sound disorders vary because of differences in the:
definitions of speech sound disorders
Glen (4;10 years) has a concomitant language impairment and speech sound disorder. Fiona (4;9 years) has a speech sound disorder only. Which of the following statements is true?
Glen is less likely to improve without intervention compared to Fiona.
Doug (32 years) has a history of childhood speech sound disorder. He received speech-language pathology intervention as a young child. His speech is now intelligible to unfamiliar listeners. During an assessment task designed to stress Doug's speech production skill, you would expect that Doug:
may have subtle difficulties with polysyllabic words and tongue twisters, and may have errors on /ɹ, s, z/.
The average age of referral for children with speech sound disorders is:
The ratio of boys to girls with speech sound disorders is:
approximately 2:1 boys to girls.
For children who are multilingual, it is true that:
speaking more than one language is not a cause of speech sound disorders in children.
Compared to typically developing children, school-aged children identified at 4 to 5 years as having difficulty talking and making speech sounds may experience:
poorer peer relationships, significantly more instances of bullying, lower self-esteem, and less enjoyment of school.
Using Dollaghan's (2007) conceptualization of E3BP, the three sources of evidence include:
external evidence, internal clinical evidence, and internal evidence from patients/clients.
Natural history refers to:
the progression speech sound disorders without intervention.
Vygotsky's (1978) concept of the zone of proximal development refers to:
the level that a child can attain without assistance up to the level that the child can attain with assistance from others.
Angus is 25 months. On a diadochokinesis (DDK) task, you would expect that he:
can produce between three and four syllables per second.
Elijah (18 months old) is a typically-developing English-speaking child. Which of the following phonetic inventories of consonants in word-initial position would be most likely for Elijah?
[b, d, m, n, h, w]
Lincoln (24 months old) is a typically developing English-speaking child. Lincoln's percentage of consonants correct (PCC) would most likely be around:
Jordan (3;11 years) is a typically-developing English-speaking child. Which of the following productions of the word through /θɹu/ would be the most acceptable for Jordan's age?
Hugo (3;10 years) is a typically-developing English-speaking child. Which of the following productions of the word shoe would be acceptable for Hugo's age?
Which of the following consonants form Shriberg's (1993) early-8 consonants correct in conversational speech?
[m, b, j, n, w, d, p, h]
Heidi (4;5 years) is a typically-developing English-speaking child. Heidi's percentage of consonants correct (PCC) would most likely be around:
Toby (3;10 years) is a typically-developing English-speaking child. Which of the following pronunciations of the word butterfly would be the most typical for Toby's age?
Studies of speech acquisition of children across the world suggest that the sound classes to emerge first are:
plosives and nasals
Approximately how many of the world's population speak more than one language?
The four purposes of assessment include:
description, differential diagnosis, intervention planning and outcome measurement.
Emily (6;4 years) is to have a detailed descriptive assessment. This type of assessment would be most useful for:
describing Emily's areas of strength and difficulty, and how Emily functions in the context of her daily life.
Of the following assessments, the least useful tool for measuring intervention outcome would be:
a standardized articulation screening assessment tool.
The type of assessment that always has consistent test materials, consistent procedures for test administration, and consistent scoring rules is:
a standardized assessment.
If a screening assessment tool is promoted as having good sensitivity, this means it has:
the ability to identify the presence of a speech sound disorder in a child who has a speech sound disorder.
Bailey (3;2 years) is undergoing a static assessment of his speech production skills. This means that, the SLP is assessing Bailey's:
speech production performance at one point in time, with no feedback on articulation accuracy.
Dominic (5;2 years) is a monolingual English-speaking child and has velar fronting. he is undergoing a dynamic speech production assessment. This most likely means that the SLP is:
evaluating Dominic's capacity to produce velars in a variety of linguistic environments, with a variety of cues.
The Dynamic Evaluation of Motor Speech Skill (DEMSS) (Strand, McCauley, Weigand, Stoeckel, & Bass, 2013) involves:
assessing a child's responses to cues and facilitation in syllables and utterances of increasing length.
Issac's parents would like to find out whether or not Issac (4;9 years) has a speech and sound disorder. The most important assessment tool needed to conduct the assessment is:
Olive (4;5 years) is a girl who speaks English only and has a moderate-severe phonological impairment. During a single-word assessment, Olive said giraffe /ʤəɹæf/ as [wæf]. From this one attempt at a word by Olive, the following observations are possible form the perspective of an independent analysis:
Olive can produce a CVC word shape. She can produce [w] in word-initial position and the labiodental fricative [f] in word-final position.
During a single-word assessment, Olive (4;5 years) said giraffe /ʤəɹæf/ as [wæf] and spaghetti /spəɡɛti/ as [ɡɛti] but caterpillar /kætɚpɪlɚ/ as [kætəpɪwə] and butterfly /bʌtɚflaɪ/ as [bʌtəfaɪ]. Based on a relational analysis of this small sample of words, you could hypothesize that Olive probably has:
pre-tonic weak syllable deletion, gliding of liquids, and cluster reduction.
Lucas (4;7 years) speaks English only. He has a mild-moderate phonological impairment. During a single-word assessment, Lucas said giraffe /ʤəɹæf/ as [dəwæf]. From this one attempt at a word by Lucas, the following observations are possible from the perspective of a relational analysis:
Lucas most likely has stopping of affricates and gliding of liquids.
The three consonant manner classes evident in Lucas' production of the word giraffe /ʤəɹæf/ as [dəwæf] include:
plosives, glides, and fricatives.
Fletcher (5;1 years) speaks English only. During an initial assessment with Fletcher, he pronounced the following words as: kitchen /kɪʧən/ → [tɪʧən], caravan /kæɹəvæn/ → [tæɹəvæn], bike /baɪk/ → [baɪk], king /kɪŋ/ → [tɪŋ], go /ɡo/ → [do], buggy /bʌɡi/ → [bʌɡi], bag /bæɡ/ → [bæɡ], clean /klin/ → [tin], and glue /ɡlu/ → [du]. From this brief sample, you could suggest that Fletcher has:
a positional constraint for velar place of articulation, with velars limited to within and word-final positions.
Samuel (4;0 years) is a boy who speaks English only. During an initial assessment with Samuel, he pronounced the following words as follows: kitchen /kɪʧən/ → [tɪtən], caravan /kæɹəvæn/ → [tæwəvæn], bike /baɪk/ → [baɪt], king /kɪŋ/ → [tɪn], go /ɡo/ → [do], buggy /bʌɡi/ → [bʌdi], bag /bæɡ/ → [bæd], clean /klin/ → [tin], and glue /ɡlu/ → [du]. From this brief sample, Samuel has:
an inventory constraint for velar place of articulation
Using the words produced by Samuel (4;0 years): kitchen /kɪʧən/ → [tɪtən], caravan /kæɹəvæn/ → [tæwəvæn], bike /baɪk/ → [baɪt], king /kɪŋ/ → [tɪn], go /ɡo/ → [do], buggy /bʌɡi/ → [bʌdi], bag /bæɡ/ → [bæd], clean /klin/ → [tin], and glue /ɡlu/ → [du], select the best option that summarizes Samuel's syllable shape inventory.
Using the words produced by Samuel (4;0 years): kitchen /kɪʧən/ → [tɪtən], caravan /kæɹəvæn/ → [tæwəvæn], bike /baɪk/ → [baɪt], king /kɪŋ/ → [tɪn], go /ɡo/ → [do], buggy /bʌɡi/ → [bʌdi], bag /bæɡ/ → [bæd], clean /klin/ → [tin], and glue /ɡlu/ → [du], select Samuel's best (most complex) word shape.
A phonologically frozen form is evident when:
a child produces a word using an earlier version despite his or her system being more advanced.
Franklin (4;1 years) is a boy who speaks English only. You have conducted an assessment with Franklin, analyzed his speech sample and identified that he substitutes /t, k, θ, s, ʃ, tʃ, tw, tɹ, θɹ, st, sk, sl, stɹ, skw, skɹ, ʃɹ, kw, kl, kɹ, kj/ in word-initial position with [t]. This can most succinctly be described as:
a 20:1 word-initial phoneme collapse to [t].
Stimulus generalization is evident when:
a targeted speech skill is evoked with different people, in a different environment.
Olive (4;5 years) is a girl who speaks only English. She has a moderate-severe phonological impairment and has been receiving intervention targeting cluster reduction. An improvement on a phonological generalization probe suggests that Olive is:
showing generalization to non-treatment words containing non-treatment clusters.
The traditional developmental approach to target selection prioritizes:
earlier developing stimulable phonemes.
The complexity approach to target selection prioritizes:
consonants and/or consonant clusters reflecting least knowledge.
Hodson's (2007) primary target patterns include:
anterior-poster contrasts, /s/ clusters, liquids, and word structures.
When prioritizing the order of primary target patterns in Hodson's (2007) cycles approach, the primary pattern selected first is:
the pattern with the best stimulability or readiness, to ensure that a child achieves immediate success.
In Hodson's (2007) cycles approach to target selection, the criterion for moving on from one primary target pattern to another primary target pattern is a:
time-based criterion whereby each stimulable phoneme within a pattern is targeted for 60 minutes.
Franklin (4;1 years) is a boy who speaks only English. Phonological analysis of Franklin's speech revealed a large a collapse of contrast /t, k, θ, s, ʃ, tʃ, tw, tɹ, θɹ, st, sk, sl, stɹ, skw, skɹ, ʃɹ, kw, kl, kɹ, kj/ in word-initial position to [t]. Ideal intervention targets suitable for multiple oppositions intervention with Franklin would include:
[k, ʃ, ʧ, sl]
Jarrod (7;0 years) has inconsistent speech disorder. The most suitable intervention goal targeting speech production would be:
Jenny (2;3) speaks only English. She has limited expressive language and suspected childhood apraxia of speech. She has three vowels and no true consonants. A helpful first speech intervention target for Jenny would be:
production of simple CV open syllables beginning with glides.
Ludwig (7;3 years) speaks English and German. Ludwig has childhood apraxia of speech. His phonetic inventory for both languages is relatively complete, however, words of increasing length are challenging and show dysprosody. A speech goal for Ludwig would most likely be to:
increase Ludwig's word lengths from monosyllables to di- and polysyllables comprising a variety of lexical stress patterns.
The following feedback comment to a child during phonological intervention ("I'm not sure what you mean. Do you mean Sue or shoe?") best typifies the phonological principle that intervention:
include conversational repair sequences to facilitate improved speech intelligibility.
A motor learning principle of intervention is that an optimal amount of information should be provided to challenge a child to learn. This principle is based on:
Guadagnoli and Lee's (2004) challenge point framework.
Based on the literature on the principles of motor learning, skill acquisition reflects:
a learner's performance of a skill during practice.
Practice distribution is about how an amount of intervention is dispersed over time. The term used to refer to less time between practice sessions is:
If the focus of intervention is long term retention and transfer, then the type of practice distribution thought to be better is:
Jacinta (6;8 years) is a girl who speaks only English. She has an articulation impairment characterized by dentalized /s, z/. Intervention will be based on the principles of motor learning. What would happen during the pre-practice phase of intervention?
Jacinta would be given information about /s/, what constitutes a correct response, and how to articulate a correct /s/.
Jacinta (6;8 years) is engaged in the practice phase of intervention targeting her dentalization of /s, z/. You offer Jacinta knowledge of results (KR), which means that Jacinta is:
receiving feedback about response accuracy (i.e., correct or incorrect).
During the practice phase of intervention with Quintin (7;5 years) targeting his distortion of /ɹ/, the frequency and timing of feedback should be:
low and delayed.
Paulo (5;3 years) speaks English and Brazilian Portuguese. He has a phonological impairment and is learning to produce anterior-posterior contrasts. During intervention he is practicing word-initial /k/ words in an errorless manner, because:
practice without error is thought to encourage and strengthen accurate acquisition of a motor skill.
The type of reinforcement schedule thought to decrease the likelihood of a behavior generalizing is:
Lacey (4;11 years) is a girl who speaks only English. She has a phonological impairment. During an intervention session with Lacey she says "I can [ɡu] I mean [ɡlu] that one on." Lacey's comment reflects:
When a clinician decides to step up from one teaching moment to the next, this means:
changing and/or reducing cues so that a task becomes more challenging for a child.
The type of data best for answering the following question is: "Is Aariz responding positively to teaching and learning moments?" is:
The type of data best for answering the following question: "Is improvement evident in Aariz's short- and long-term goals?" is:
generalization probe data.
If visual inspection of baseline and generalization data indicated an improvement in a child's percentage of consonants correct, you would see:
an increasing trend and change in level of performance between baseline and generalization data.
Within clinic generalization probe data is best gathered:
at the beginning of an intervention session.
Kevin (4;7 years) is a boy who speaks only English. He has velar fronting of /k, ɡ/ across all word positions in singleton and consonant cluster contexts. In preparation for evaluating Kevin's progress on the short-term goal of eliminating velar fronting, you need to:
compile an informal picture-naming task comprising 32 non-treatment words (four of /k/ and four of /ɡ/ in word-initial, within word, and word-final positions, and four word-initial consonant clusters and four word-final consonant clusters).
During an intervention session, Huang (6;3 years) verbally segments the phonemes in the word leap /lip/. This is an example of a:
phonological awareness output task.
The phonological principle that intervention can include conversational repair sequences to improve speech intelligibility guides:
the types of procedures and teaching cues used in intervention.
Oscar (4;9 years) speaks English and German. He has a mild-moderate phonological impairment. You are going to use the meaningful minimal pair approach with him. This means you will:
familiarize Oscar with your selected minimal pair pictures, ask Oscar to listen and pick up one of the minimal pair pictures at a time, then, ask Oscar to tell you which pictures to pick up.
Children suited to the minimal pair approach need to:
have a loss of phonemic contrast in their speech.
Franklin (4;1 years) is a boy who speaks only English. He has a large a collapse of contrast /t, k, θ, s, ʃ, tʃ, tw, tɹ, θɹ, st, sk, sl, stɹ, skw, skɹ, ʃɹ, kw, kl, kɹ, kj/ in word-initial position to [t]. Which of the following word sets, would be suitable to use during multiple oppositions intervention with Franklin?
tip, ship, Kip, slip chip; two, shoe, coo!, slew, chew; top, shop, cop, slop, chop.
Jonny (4;7 years) is a boy who speaks only English. He has a severe phonological impairment, poor speech sound stimulability, and speech perception difficulties. You begin intervention by targeting Jonny's speech perception skills using Susan Rvachew's (2009) Speech Assessment and Interactive Learning System (SAILS) program. During SAILS, Jonny will:
listen to and make judgments about pronunciations of the same word spoken by different speakers (children and adults, male and female speakers) in addition to errored productions of the target word.
Hakeem (5;2 years) speaks English and Arabic. He has concomitant phonology and morphosyntax difficulties. During a morphosyntax intervention session, he would be engaging in:
focused stimulation of the target morphemes in a narrative activity following by elicited production activities.
Archie (2;6 years) is a boy who speaks only English. He has a small phonetic inventory and limited stimulability. You have selected to use Miccio and Elbert's (1996) stimulability approach. As part of Archie's first intervention session you:
teach him the names of 21 alliterative characters and their corresponding gestures, show him the pictures for each alliterative character, and provide him with auditory models of the speech sound associated with each character.
The intervention approach better suited to Jarrod (7;0 years) a boy who speaks only English, who has inconsistent speech (phonological) disorder is:
core vocabulary intervention.
When targeting pre-tonic weak syllable deletion, it can be helpful to start:
at phrase level (e.g., big potato / bɪɡ pəteto/) rather than word level.
Luke (4;3 years) is a boy who speaks only English and has a phonological impairment. As part of your overall management plan for Luke, you have selected multiple oppositions intervention to target his extensive phoneme collapses, and emergent literacy intervention (focused on phonemic awareness and letter name/sound knowledge) to mitigate his risk of literacy difficulties. The task that would not be appropriate when targeting Luke's phonemic awareness is:
syllabification of disyllables and polysyllables.
Zoe (8;3 years) is a girl who speaks only English. She has an interdental lisp. You have decided to trial a period of traditional articulation intervention to improve the clarity of her production of /s, z/. During the first intervention session you start with:
sensory-perceptual (ear) training including identifying, locating, stimulation, and discrimination.
You have begun pre-practice instruction with Zoe (8;3 years) to improve her production of /s, z/. During pre-practice instruction you:
teach Zoe how to articulate /s/ with cues as necessary.
As part of traditional articulation intervention, transfer and carryover would involve Zoe (8;3 years):
learning to use /s, z/ in conversational speech in everyday situations.
The production practice sequence in Van Riper's traditional articulation intervention approach includes:
isolation, nonsense syllables, words, sentences.
Gillan (7;5 years) has an articulation impairment characterized by /ɹ/ distortion. You have decided to help Gillan produce /ɹ/ by successive approximation from another consonant. This would most likely involve:
shaping /ɹ/ from [l].
A facilitating phonetic environment that would not be helpful for eliciting /ɹ/ with a school-aged child with /ɹ/ distortion would be:
/ɹ/ before a high back rounded vowel [u].
Compared with traditional articulation therapy, concurrent treatment uses:
Virginia (2;4 years) has recently been diagnosed with childhood dysarthria. This means that she has:
a motor-speech disorder due to paralysis, weakness, or incoordination of speech muscles caused by central or peripheral nerve damage.
Owen (4;5 years) pronounces the same word in different ways and can be difficult to understand. Although he has quite a good phonetic inventory, he does not have consistent error patterns in his speech. His prosody is intact, and his imitated productions of words are better than his spontaneous productions. In light of these observations, Owen most likely has:
inconsistent speech disorder.
Rueben (8;5 years) has difficulty clearly articulating the /ɹ/ in his name. He says [wubən] instead of /ɹubən/. An articulation assessment revealed that Rueben derhotacized /ɹ, ɝ, ɚ/. No other speech production errors were detected. Rueben has no prior history of speech, language or literacy difficulties. In light of these observations Rueben most likely has:
Paxton (5;5 years) has inconsistent speech disorder and Jeremy (5;3 years) has childhood apraxia of speech. What speech characteristic would help separate Paxton's type of speech sound disorder from Jeremy's type of speech sound disorder?
Paxton would have lexical inconsistency but appropriate prosody, whereas Jeremy is likely to have lexical inconsistency and dysprosody.
The components of the Children and Youth Version of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF-CY) (WHO, 2007) include:
Body Function, Body Structure, Activities, Participation, Environmental Factors and Personal Factors.
Speech characteristics common for children with cleft lip and palate include:
hypernasality and abnormal nasal airflow during speech.
Children with cleft lip and palate tend to have compensatory errors in their speech such as:
glottal stop substitution and backing.
Issues that are thought to complicate the speech difficulties experienced by children with Down syndrome include:
increased occurrence of otitis media, hypotonicity, and anatomical variations.
The link between speech sound disorders and otitis media with effusion (OME or glue ear) is:
clear and well-established.
Compared with children with phonological impairment only, children with concomitant language and phonological impairment tend to have:
more omission errors.
Louis (8;3 years) has childhood dysarthria. Three different methods for assessing Louis' speech intelligibility could include:
a single-word measure, a connected speech measure, and a rating scale.
One of the problems with single rating scale measures of speech intelligibility is:
the interdependence of the listener and the speaker, and therefore that listeners will make different judgments.
In contrast with the concepts of speech intelligibility and speech comprehensibility, speech acceptability captures whether a speaker's message:
is different from what is accepted by the linguistic community.
When assessing a child's ability to articulate velar consonants, it is important to remember that:
velar consonants produced with back vowels may be more accurate than with font vowels.
Most standardized single-word speech assessments are useful for assessing:
the majority of consonants in word-initial, within word, and word-final positions.
You are conducting a single-word assessment with Lorena (3;9 years) using a picture naming task. You show Lorena the picture of a lion and she says dog. Using the hierarchy of elicitation, your next response would most likely be:
It has four legs like a dog, but this animal has a mane and roars. Have another go. What is it?"
Grunwell's (1987) recommended minimum length of a conversational speech sample is:
100 different words.
Phonological access is typically assessed via:
rapid naming tasks.
Fiona (3;6 years) has a repaired cleft of the soft palate. The assessment task that would be particularly important to consider when conducting an assessment of Fiona's speech production skills would be:
articulation of high-pressure consonants (particularly plosives).
The groups of words that would be the most suitable for conducting an articulation assessment of a 4-year-old English-speaking child's ability to produce the voiced affricate /ʤ/ would be:
jam, jellybeans, magic, fire engine, page, orange.
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