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IMMEDIATE, SHORT TERM, LONG TERM; all three are used in every exercises, just in different proportions
immediate energy system
ATP, CP system; anaerobic; primary energy when doing high intensity, short duration exercises (<5seconds)
short term energy system
lactic acid system; anaerobic glycolosis; all out exercise for 60-180 seconds
long term energy system
aerobic system; lactic acid does not accumulate in the muscle to any appreciable extent under "steady state" conditions because ample oxygen is available to make the required ATP
3 f(x)s of carbs
fuel for energy (esp. during exercise and when insulin is in high concentrations); protein sparing (preserve proteins in the muscle that can otherwise be converted into glycogen for fuel, N balance improves with ingestion of non-protein calories); fuel for the brain
oxidation of glucose to pyruvate/lactate; generates 2 ATP from 1 glucose molecule; a lot of the pyrvate converted to acetyl-CoA that is fed into aerobic pathway, where mitochondria, under aerobic conditions, convert it into ATP
without oxygen; only carbs; refers to glycolysis and high energy phosphagen pathways
lipoprotein lipase; enzyme that takes plasma TG and breaks it down into FFA (think scissors); facilitates the storage of fat
stimulators of LPL
insulin (stimulates fat deposition into fat cells); caloric restriction (body enters starvation mode, upregulates the enzyme to save whatever fat it can); estrogen (aromatase activity, why fat is higher in females)
reduce fat, refined carb (reduces insulin resistance) alcohol (decreases fat oxidation) intake; increase physical activity and LBM (raises BMR); increase fiber intake (makes us feel full)
stimulators of HSL
catechloamines (epinephrine, norepinepinephrine); caffeine (inhibits breakdown of cAMP); beta adrenic receptor (binds epinephrine); FFA binding to alb to form alb-FA (gets transported to muscle and used as fuel)
losing fat from one spot on the body; most studies have shown that this is just not a possibility
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