29 terms

Topic 19: Carbohydrate and Fat Metablism

adenosine tri phosphate; form of chemical energy the body produces for biological work
formation ATP
glucose + 6O2-->6CO2+6H2O+ATP
high energy phosphate molecules
ATP and CP (creatine phosphate)
CP f(x)
CP breakdown causes the reformation of ATP
energy systems
IMMEDIATE, SHORT TERM, LONG TERM; all three are used in every exercises, just in different proportions
immediate energy system
ATP, CP system; anaerobic; primary energy when doing high intensity, short duration exercises (<5seconds)
short term energy system
lactic acid system; anaerobic glycolosis; all out exercise for 60-180 seconds
long term energy system
aerobic system; lactic acid does not accumulate in the muscle to any appreciable extent under "steady state" conditions because ample oxygen is available to make the required ATP
3 f(x)s of carbs
fuel for energy (esp. during exercise and when insulin is in high concentrations); protein sparing (preserve proteins in the muscle that can otherwise be converted into glycogen for fuel, N balance improves with ingestion of non-protein calories); fuel for the brain
formation of glycogen stimulated by insulin
break down of glycogen to glucose
oxidation of glucose to pyruvate/lactate; generates 2 ATP from 1 glucose molecule; a lot of the pyrvate converted to acetyl-CoA that is fed into aerobic pathway, where mitochondria, under aerobic conditions, convert it into ATP
conversion of pyruvate or other organic precursors into glucose
anaerobic metabolism
without oxygen; only carbs; refers to glycolysis and high energy phosphagen pathways
aerobic metabolism
when oxygen is used; carbs and fat
1 oxidized glucose gets you...
2 ATP from glycolytic pathway, 34 ATP from aerobic
oxidative metabolism
glucoes-->pyruvate/lactate-->acetyl CoA+oxaloacetate-->Co2+H2O+36 ATP
lipid fuel sources
TG (stored directly in the muscle) & FFA mobilized from TG in adipose tissue
lipoprotein lipase; enzyme that takes plasma TG and breaks it down into FFA (think scissors); facilitates the storage of fat
concentrations of LPL
want high in vessel wall of skeletal muscle and low in adipose tissue
stimulators of LPL
insulin (stimulates fat deposition into fat cells); caloric restriction (body enters starvation mode, upregulates the enzyme to save whatever fat it can); estrogen (aromatase activity, why fat is higher in females)
the formation of/storage of fat, facilitated by LDL activity
reducing lipogenisis
reduce fat, refined carb (reduces insulin resistance) alcohol (decreases fat oxidation) intake; increase physical activity and LBM (raises BMR); increase fiber intake (makes us feel full)
hormone sensitive lipase; breaks down TG into FFA and glycerol
stimulators of HSL
catechloamines (epinephrine, norepinepinephrine); caffeine (inhibits breakdown of cAMP); beta adrenic receptor (binds epinephrine); FFA binding to alb to form alb-FA (gets transported to muscle and used as fuel)
dictation of fat metabolism
ratio of epinephrine to insuin!
exercise-->fat loss?
conserves or raises LBM; enhances fat breakdown; increases caloric expenditure
spot reduction
losing fat from one spot on the body; most studies have shown that this is just not a possibility
pyruvate-->acetyl CoA-->FFA