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adenosine tri phosphate; form of chemical energy the body produces for biological work

formation ATP

glucose + 6O2-->6CO2+6H2O+ATP

high energy phosphate molecules

ATP and CP (creatine phosphate)

CP f(x)

CP breakdown causes the reformation of ATP

energy systems

IMMEDIATE, SHORT TERM, LONG TERM; all three are used in every exercises, just in different proportions

immediate energy system

ATP, CP system; anaerobic; primary energy when doing high intensity, short duration exercises (<5seconds)

short term energy system

lactic acid system; anaerobic glycolosis; all out exercise for 60-180 seconds

long term energy system

aerobic system; lactic acid does not accumulate in the muscle to any appreciable extent under "steady state" conditions because ample oxygen is available to make the required ATP

3 f(x)s of carbs

fuel for energy (esp. during exercise and when insulin is in high concentrations); protein sparing (preserve proteins in the muscle that can otherwise be converted into glycogen for fuel, N balance improves with ingestion of non-protein calories); fuel for the brain


formation of glycogen stimulated by insulin


break down of glycogen to glucose


oxidation of glucose to pyruvate/lactate; generates 2 ATP from 1 glucose molecule; a lot of the pyrvate converted to acetyl-CoA that is fed into aerobic pathway, where mitochondria, under aerobic conditions, convert it into ATP


conversion of pyruvate or other organic precursors into glucose

anaerobic metabolism

without oxygen; only carbs; refers to glycolysis and high energy phosphagen pathways

aerobic metabolism

when oxygen is used; carbs and fat

1 oxidized glucose gets you...

2 ATP from glycolytic pathway, 34 ATP from aerobic

oxidative metabolism

glucoes-->pyruvate/lactate-->acetyl CoA+oxaloacetate-->Co2+H2O+36 ATP

lipid fuel sources

TG (stored directly in the muscle) & FFA mobilized from TG in adipose tissue


lipoprotein lipase; enzyme that takes plasma TG and breaks it down into FFA (think scissors); facilitates the storage of fat

concentrations of LPL

want high in vessel wall of skeletal muscle and low in adipose tissue

stimulators of LPL

insulin (stimulates fat deposition into fat cells); caloric restriction (body enters starvation mode, upregulates the enzyme to save whatever fat it can); estrogen (aromatase activity, why fat is higher in females)


the formation of/storage of fat, facilitated by LDL activity

reducing lipogenisis

reduce fat, refined carb (reduces insulin resistance) alcohol (decreases fat oxidation) intake; increase physical activity and LBM (raises BMR); increase fiber intake (makes us feel full)


hormone sensitive lipase; breaks down TG into FFA and glycerol

stimulators of HSL

catechloamines (epinephrine, norepinepinephrine); caffeine (inhibits breakdown of cAMP); beta adrenic receptor (binds epinephrine); FFA binding to alb to form alb-FA (gets transported to muscle and used as fuel)

dictation of fat metabolism

ratio of epinephrine to insuin!

exercise-->fat loss?

conserves or raises LBM; enhances fat breakdown; increases caloric expenditure

spot reduction

losing fat from one spot on the body; most studies have shown that this is just not a possibility


pyruvate-->acetyl CoA-->FFA

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