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Community Health Final Exam
Terms in this set (87)
Levels of prevention
- Primary- teaching
- Tertiary- rehab/chronic condition
Using general and specific measures in a population to promote health and prevent the development of disease and using specific measures to prevent diseases in those who are predisposed to developing a particular condition.
Stopping the progress of disease by early detection and treatment, thus reducing prevalence and chronicity.
Stopping deterioration in a patient, a relapse, or disability and dependency by anticipatory nursing and medical care.
The role of public health in ensuring the essential community-oriented health services are available, which may include providing essential personal health services for those who would otherwise not receive them.
According to WHO what is the key to achieving worldwide health goals?
-Implementation of primary health care for all
- Identification and definition of health issues and of the investment decisions within a population that were guided by evidence about what keeps people healthy.
What are some preventable global conditions?
Malaria, malnutrition, communicable diseases, chronic health problems, conditions related to pollution, violence
What is the WHO? What do they provide?
Provides worldwide guidance in health, antibiotics and vaccines, sets global standards for health and works with governments to strengthen their national programs and focuses on health care workforce
What disease contributes to high infant and child mortality rates in lesser developed countries?
What is medicaid?
Provides hospital insurance and medical insurance to persons aged 65 and older, to permanently disabled persons, individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and to person with end-stage renal disease.
Is medicaid state or federally funded?
What does medicare part A cover?
Hospital costs- requires a deductible and co-payments, skilled nursing facilities, home health, hospice
Why might Medicare be short funding in the 21st century?
High percentage of elderly in the US population, Health care costs are rising and chronic diseases are also increasing
What is an HMO
Network or group of designated providers who agree to give comprehensive care for a single fee per person per year
(SA) What factors Contribute to the risk of people being underinsured or uninsured?
Young adults (especially young men), minorities, under 65 years of age, in good or fair health, poor or near poor
(SA) Examples of environmental risks.
- Toxins-lead, pesticides, mercury
- Air pollution-carbon monoxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide
- Water pollution-wastes, erosion post mining, fertilizers
- Contamination-food with bacteria, pesticides, radiation, growth hormones
What is the role of advocacy?
Advocacy begins with the art of influencing others (politics) to adopt a specific course of action (policy) to solve a societal problem. This is accomplished by building relationships with policy makers
What is an example of advocacy?
Writing letters or visits to lawmakers. Contributions of money, labor, expertise, or influence. Develop a grassroots network development.
Which level of government has jurisdiction over nursing scope of practice? State or Federal?
What are state agencies responsible for monitoring?
What is experimental epidemiology?
- Manipulating exposure to a causative factor in order to look for differences in the incidence of the effect
- Studies in which the investigator initiates some treatment or intervention that may influence the risk or course of the disease
What type of epidemiology would a clinical research trial be considered?
What is prevalence rate and how is it calculated?
# of people with the disease/ total # of people X 100
(SA) What does the epidemiologic process involve?
- Determining the nature, extent and significance of the problem
- Gathering information from a variety of sources
- Make an evidenced based collaborative plan and enact it
- Evaluate the plan and report follow up
What is the epidemiologic triangle?
-Infectious agent (bacteria, virus, fungi)
-Chemical (heavy metals, toxins, pesticides)
-Physical (radiation, heat, cold)
Genetic susceptibility, sex, age, immune status, lifestyle factors (diet & exercise)
Climate, working conditions, and socioeconomic factors
What happens if one element of the epidemiologic triangle is impacted?
It impacts the entire disease process
How do you calculate infant mortality rate?
# of deaths in 1st year of life divided by the number of live births X 1000
Vector transmission could include what diseases?
Malaria-mosquito, lyme disease-tick
What is an endemic?
Constant presence of disease within a population
Why are community assessments completed?
Identify problems or risks based on the analysis of the community assessment.
Example(s) of an implementation measure that occurs after a community assessment?
Finding housing for those that fear eviction and live in substandard housing, See that the community doesn't have public transportation so you implement public bus system
Example(s) of a community-level diagnosis?
- Specific problem or health risk faced by the community
- Diagnosis based on the problem in the community or what the community is at risk for (water contamination, nutritional deficits)
What is the definition of collaboration as it relates to community health?
Exchange of information and sharing or pooling resources for mutual benefit to achieve a common purpose
(SA) What are the elements of a community assessment?
- Community and landmark descriptions
- Governmental data related to demographic and epidemiological environmental health
- The current city government of the community
(SA) What facilities/places would qualify as those that provide human services?
Hospital, health clinics, nursing homes, public health department, physical therapy, rehab facilities
What are some examples of learner barriers?
Define a disaster event
- Earthquake that disrupts community power and water supply
- Hurricane that leaves people homeless
(SA) What are Elements of a Disaster Plan?
- Identify community vulnerabilities r/t potential disaster
- Identify warning systems and communication centers
- Identify first responders plan and specific roles of personnel
- Plans for replenishing and storing equipment and supplies
- Define nursing roles in first second and third level triage
What is the treatment for anthrax?
What is an example(s) of disaster preparedness?
Having an evacuation plan in place, disaster kits
What is the priority nursing intervention in response to a disaster?
Reestablish sanitary barriers and basic needs, (water, food, shelter, waste removal) , triage clients to appropriate areas/clinics
(SA) What populations are at greatest risk after a disaster?
Children, single parents, substance abusers
What is the Case Manager role?
-coordinate healthcare services for clients with complex health problems
- Liaison, negotiator, broker, consultant, coordinator, educator, facilitator, mentor, monitor/reporter, client advocate, researcher, standardization monitor, systems allocator
What are important assessment activities a case manager should gather prior to a person's discharge?
Develop networks with target population, disseminate written material, seek referrals
What barriers exists for clients utilizing resource referrals?
Inadequate knowledge of and access to available resources
What are the predictors of vulnerability?
· homeless pregnant teens in a substance abuse program, poor health status, economics,
· Limitations in physical resources, environmental resources, personal resources, and biopsychosocial resources
· Limited social support
· Working in hazardous environments
· Pre-existing illness, chronic illness
· Poor education
What is the fastest growing population of homeless?
Families with children... CHILDREN
Definition of Migrant Farmworker
Travels to do farm work and is unable to return to their permanent residence that same day
(SA) What are some challenges of the migrant lifestyle?
access to health care, lack of resources, isolation in new communities, uncertainty regarding work and housing, occupational health risk
Development of abusive Patterns
Children of abusive parents may also be at risk for being violent in future relationships
(SA) What resources are available for Women and Children of abusers?
- Women's and families shelters
- Food banks
- Advocacy and support groups
- Order of protection
- Criminal justice system
Facts about family violence?
- They believe violence is the way to handle problems
- Women who are abused will seek medical care
- Abuse is cyclical
- Different types of family violence such as child abuse and abuse of partner
- Types of intimate partner and family violence: physical and sexual
- Indicators of Child abuse: passive neglect and emotional abuse
What is the purpose of hospice care?
Work with physicians, pharmacist, hospice workers, and family to prevent pain and control the client's unwanted symptoms
What is the Omaha system?
-Implement the nursing process into health and information systems
-Initially developed to operationalize the nursing process and provide a practical, easily understood, computer-compatible guide for daily use in community settings
TDLR: Omaha system
EHR for home health
What are some examples of assessments you might make as a home health nurse?
- Primary: Home safety (cords, rugs, stairs, etc.)
- Secondary: HTN pt how to use the BP monitor correctly and when to call MD
- Tertiary: PT/OT visits
Is home health care considered constant care or intermittent care?
Healthy people 2020 goals for Children?
Promote nutritional physical and emotional health standards
(SA) A comprehensive school health program should include what?
- Nutrition services and counseling
- Health education and promotion for school staff
- Health services such as dispensing meds
- Developmental sex education school health program
(SA) What are some common responsibilities of a school nurse?
- Prevention and control of communicable disease
- Collaborative detection of dev. Delays
- Responsibility for maintaining current health records
- Teach classes r/t human development and sex education for school aged children
(SA) What are some primary prevention measures in a school setting?
- Helping to develop a class on coping skills for use in an elementary school
- Teaching first graders how to wash their hands and cough into a tissue
- Organizing a "focus on health and nutrition" week
What is the primary role of an occupational health nurse?
Provide health related assessments of the work site, primary and secondary care for employees
What is the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health?
-Conducts research to prevent work related injuries
What issues do they investigate?
-lack of PPE
What are examples of chemical hazards in the work place?
Why do Nurses perform occupational health assessments?
Helps to identify agent and host factors that place employees at risk
(SA)What is OSHA? What are they responsible for?
What is the primary goal of parish nursing?
Collaboratively develop and sustain health ministries within faith communities
What is in the scope of a parish nurses practice?
They cannot prescribe meds, or do physical exams, they should not be recommending OTC meds.
Mission of public health
Social justice - entitlement of people to the basic necessities for life
provide information about toxic chemicals
The institute of Medicine (IOM) highlights the importance of...
Health care providers and patients working together to produce the best outcomes
Collaboration in community health nursing
Exchanging information and sharing or pooling resources for mutual benefit to achieve a common purpose
A 'certified' agency is...
One that received Medicare payments; surveyors must check that the agency meets federal standards
An increase in tuberculosis is attributed to...
An increase in AIDS, homeless and immigrants
Public health nursing is mostly based on...
The ethics of beneficence and utilitarianism
Infant mortality is considered the primary indicator of...
Health of a nation
supporting and facilitating client's use of cultural practices while assisting the client to modify cultural practices that are not beneficial to their health
No experience with other cultures, views his/her culture as the only way of doing/thinking
The leading cause of death for older adults in the US
What is a priority challange for mirgrant farmworkers?
Where do forensic nurses typically work?
Medical examiners offices
(SA) Challenges for a public health nurse in the 21st century include
- Racial, ethnic and economic health disparities
- Rise of drug resistant problems
- Unequal access to health care
(SA) Characteristics of the current US public health system
- Paid for by government funds
- Seeks to protect and promote the health and environment of its citizens
- Strives to have programs that will do the most good for the most people
(SA) Scope of Practice of a Community Health Nurse includes the following
- Improving overall health of the community
- Assess and identify community needs and clarify problems
- Organization of health services for early prevention of disease
- Practice ethically based through beneficence and utilitarianism
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