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Anatomy Midterm - Complete
Terms in this set (290)
Yes or No, does the stomach reabsorb the enzymes it releases?
Which salivary glands swell when exposed to the virus that causes the mumps [ subsingular - parotid ]?
Where is Hydrochloric Acid released during digestion?
supply energy for cellular processes
required for growth and maintenance
body does not produce but are necessary for metabolism
Yes or no, do hormones play a role in the rate at which food is digested?
stores and concentrates bile
What other organ secretes gastric juices through the pancreas [ stomach - gallbladder ]?
The stench of feces is caused by [ acid - bacteria ].
What produces the odor associated with releasing gas?
Controls passage of food from stomach to small intestine
Glucagon is a digestive enzyme? true or false
Which salivary gland produces the most saliva?
While in the pancreas, enzymes are coated to prevent auto-digestion. true or false
The rumbling of the stomach, also known as ________, are the result of peristalsis; when the stomach is full, food muffles the sound.
found immediately inferior to the cecum
when in a relaxed postion it covers the esophagus and allows air to flow into the trachea
3rd largest organ in the body whose functions include the breaking down of fats
stores bile which breaks down fat content
secretes numerous enzymes that aid in digestion and lowering the acidity of chyme
produces enzymes that drain into the mouth
the final destination of fecal material
regulate the movements of digestion between the throat and stomach
produces enzymes for digestion, primarily hydrochloric acid
What structure is necessary for every vertebrate animal?
first portion of the small intestine
portion of the colon that extends downward from the transverse colon
Digestive organ where most chemical digestion and absorption of food takes place
A short tube at the end of the large intestine where waste material is compressed into a solid form before being eliminated
Which material is not a digestive enzyme?
What organ is shown in the picture [ gallbladder - pancreas ]?
Diarrhea is the result of . . . ?
feces passing to quickly through the large intestine.
Because the tongue is covered with projections which are called ___________, friction is created which helps to manipulate food.
How many taste buds cover the surface of the tongue?
What causes normal fecal material to be brown?
Essential organ that enables the digestion of fats?
This salivary enzyme helps to break down starch [ amylase - sucrase ].
The tongue [ is - is not ] a muscle.
Which is not a role of the pancreas in the endocrine system?
The intestines are also known as the [ bowels - dystentia ].
What digestive juice aids amylase in breaking down fat [ bile - pepsin ]?
If food is found to taste unpleasant [ more - less ] saliva is produced.
The digestive system is triggered by the sight of food and
Food breaks down in two ways, mechanically and
teeth used for mechanical chewing
esophagus moves by
How long does peristalsis take to travel to the stomach?
2 to 3 minutes
How many jobs does the stomach has?
The stomach breaks down food by gastric juices that kills
Waste from the small intestine travels to the
The colon pushes feces into the
The small intestine breaks down a thing watery mixture so the body absorbs
Vitamins the body absorbs
fats, carbohydrates, minerals, proteins, and vitamins
Nutrients give the body
Which substance can the digestive system not break down?
Pepsin is released by the [ stomach - pancreas ]?
The interior of the digestive lining produces mucus that aids in preventing acids from dissolving through the interior. true or false
amylase is a
lipase is a
pepsinogen is a
nuclease is a
Human saliva contains many of the same enzymes found in this substance.
The pancreas secretes enzymes into the stomach? true or false
What does the tongue create with the mixture of food and saliva [ ball - bolus ]?
Closer to the point of attachment
true or false, The heart is anterior to the sternum?
The heart is superior to the stomach? true or false
The fingers are distal to the elbow? true or false
The standard position of the body that is used for study . . .
A state of body equilibrium . . .
The knee is part of the axial skeleton?
The Adam's Apple is superior to the shoulders? true or false
The nose is superior to the tongue? true or false
The ovary is part of which two systems?
away from the point of attachment
In describing the relationship of the heart to the lungs . . .
the lungs are lateral to the heart
Positive feedback reacts directly with homeostatic physiology? true or false
The knee is inferior to the ankle. true or false
Which example is not a characteristic of life?
horizontal division of the body into upper and lower portions
The study of structure and shape of the body is called . . .
Which example is not a requirement for life?
Feedback that causes a stimulus to decline or end . . .
The elbow is medial to the heart? true or false
Which portion of the human body includes the arms and legs?
Which cavity are the ribs located . . .
What provides information about specific conditions?
The sum total of all chemical reactions in the body is . . .
The mouth is inferior to the ears. true or false
The mediastinum separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity? true or false
cavity housing lungs and heart
Which structure separates the thoracic cavity into two halves?
The stomach is medial to the elbow? true or false
The smallest living unit of all living things is . . .
The majority of blood vessels occur in the skin? true or false
The largest organ of the human body is our skin, true or false
What type of hormone causes acne?
Sweat is odorless? true or false
Your skin is completely replaced every . . .
Order the epidermal layers from outside to inside (adjacent to the dermis).
1. Stratum corneum
2. Stratum lucidum
3. Stratum granulosum
4. Stratum spinosum
5. Stratum basale
Over time, what caused humans to become lighter in color?
migrating away from the equator
On average, how many hairs does a person lose in one day?
What type of tissue is found in the subcutaneous layer of skin?
The wax that accumulates in your ears is a form of sweat? true or false
Where on the human body does a person not sweat?
When is dehydration fatal, at [ 50 ml/kg - 10% ] body weight loss during exercise?
Humans shed roughly how many skin cells per hour?
Female mammary glands are actually modified sweat glands? true or false
According to the graph, a cyclist would lose [ more than - less than ] 1.4 L of fluid.
Yes or No, is acne a disease?
How long does it take for the cells at the basale layer to reach the corneum?
By popping a pimple you are releasing [ pus - abscession ]?
Your thickest skin is found on your . . .
A person does not produce their final skin color until what age?
A scar is typically created once a scab falls off. true or false
The number 1 cause for acne is . . .
Everyone is born with the same number of pigment producing melanocytes? true or false
What layer of skin contains the sweat glands.
Yes or No, can sweat be used to detect drug use?
Which structure (organ) is not part of the integument system?
The most common skin condition is . . .
A scar cannot grow hair? true or false
For a person to be hydrated, urine color should be [ light - dark ]?
Who has more hair?
Female mammary glands are actually modified sweat glands?
The thinnest skin is found . . .
at our eyelids
Which part of the body produces more sweat [ arm pits - hands ]?
distal convoluted tube
Between the loop of Henle and the collecting duct; Selective reabsorption and secretion occur here, most notably to regulate reabsorption of water and sodium
Yes or No, the blood/urine travels to the glomerulus through afferent arterioles?
tiny ball of capillaries in the kidney
outer region of the kidney
cup-shaped strucutre of the nephron of a kidney which encloses the glomerulus and which filtration takes place.
inner portion of the kidneys around the renal pelvis
proximal convoluted tube
first section of the renal tubule that the blood flows through; reabsorption of water, ions, and all organic nutrients
central collecting region in the kidney
Yes or No, does filtration of urine increase when arteries constrict?
Yes or No, is the following statement true; during urination the external urethral sphincter relaxes and the internal urethral sphincter of the bladder contracts.
A duct leading from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
proposed urine was yellow because it contained small amounts of Gold
Order the flow of urine from entrance into the kidneys.
1. renal hilum
2. renal pelvis
3. renal pyramid
4. renal cortex
5. afferent arterioles
7. proximal convoluted tubule
8. loop of Henle
9. distal convoluted tubule
10. collecting duct
adults who urinate in a swimming pool
blood in urine
average urinary experiences per day
while in the bladder, urine is
urine contains a key ingredient; amonia, in this product
Shy Bladder Syndrome is also known as
micturation is also known as
used by jet fighter pilots
percentage of people who urinate in the shower
number of bags of urine, feces, and vomit left on the surface of the moon
inflammation of Bowman's capsule
Maple Syrup Disease
patient cannot process certain amino acids
loop of Henle
section of the nephron tubule that conserves water and minimizes the volume of urine
A segment of the nephron that returns water form the filtrate to the bloodstream.
respiratory system starts with the
the trachea is protected by
after the bronchi, the air goes to the
After going through the system, the air goes back to the
Known as a deep breath that helps remove particles from the trachea. [ cough - expiratus ]
The passageway common to both the respiratory system and the digestive system is the [ larynx - pharynx - tonsils ].
What percent of death in the United States is linked to smoking cigarettes?
Pneumatic lungs fill with ________ which prevents gas exchange.
Low pitched sounds are created by rapidly vibrating vocal cords? true or false
In the animated gif, what anatomical structure closes the larynx?
Why do women who begin bodybuilding produce deeper sounds with their voice.
steroids cause increased testosterone levels which deepens the voice
What happens to pressure when we exhale (breathe out)? [ increases, decreases, remains the same]
What causes the diaphragm to move higher than normal? [ abdomen - stomach ]
A high pitched sound is because vocal cords vibrate rapidly? true or false
Order the following terms as air passes through the respiratory system.
3. Adam's Apple
Air enters the nasal cavity of the respiratory system through the [ nostrils - septum ].
hollow space behind the nose
When we inhale (breathe in), what happens to the pressure in the lungs? [ increases, decreases, remains the same]
One function of the mucus produced by the respiratory system is to [ warm - pressurize ] the incoming air.
The trachea rest [ anterior - posterior ] to the esophagus.
What hormone does smoking increase which causes a rise in your blood pressure?
The weight of air causes a force known as [ ventilation - atmospheric ] pressure.
Besides the bronchial system, what other structure in the lung is affected by smoking?
The airways are persistently inflamed, and may occasionally spasm, causing shortness of breath.
smallest branches of the bronchi
Women have thicker vocal cords than men? true or false
air sacs in the lungs
When lighting a cigarette, how many cancerous chemicals are being released.
What 2 poisonous gases are found in cigarette smoke?
Lung damage allows air to be trapped in the lungs due to a lack of flexibility. Difficulty exhaling air is its hallmark
An infection of the airways, usually by a virus.
A genetic condition causing poor clearance of mucus from the bronchi. The accumulated mucus results in repeated lung infections.
An infection of the alveoli, usually by bacteria.
top bone of nose
tip of the nose
vertical groove on the midline of the upper lip
forms the outside of the nostril
divides two nares and continuous inside with nasal septum
the membrane-lined cavity behind the nose and mouth, connecting them to the esophagus.
topmost lobe of each lung
middle section of the right lung
bottom lobe of the lung
a concave space on the left lung in which the heart lies
hemoglobin releases O2 to _____ then _____
What is white matter?
A large structure of the hindbrain that controls fine motor skills.
The brain gets smaller as a person ages? true or false
Which is not a basic function of the nervous system?
A nerve impules traveling away from the CNS is [ efferent - afferent ].
Yes or No, are the sensory receptors part of the peripheral nervous system?
How many spinal nerves are there in the human body?
Cell processes called [ 1 ] receive input while a longer process call the [ 2 ], which forms the nerve [ 3 ] carries the information away as a singnal call a nerve [ 4 ]. Also, the space where the nerve communicates the signal is called the [ 5 ] synapse.
What causes gray matter, the lack of [ Potassium - myelin ]
Nerve impulses travel because of [ ions - electricity ]?
There are [ more - fewer ] cranial nerves than spinal nerves?
Which type of drug suppresses the Central Nervous System?
medulla oblongata function
corpus callosum function
communication between hemispheres of the brain
A region of the cerebral cortex that has specialized areas for movement, abstract thinking, planning, memory, and judgement
A region of the cerebral cortex whose functions include processing information about touch.
More sodium ions are found outside a neuron than inside? true or false
A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.
Which part of the brain integrates information?
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
produce myelin in PNS
Nodes of Ranvier
gaps in the myelin sheath
rounded areas on the end of the axon terminals
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
Is the inside of a neuron more positive or negative?
Which is a component of the basic functioning of the nervous system?
When sodium ions move into the cell, the cell becomes [ polarized - propogated ].
The spinal cord can act independently from the brain? true or false
Which is not part of the involuntary aspect of the nervous system?
Which part of the brain controls motor movement?
As sodium enters the neuron, calcium exits the neuron? true or false
Potassium and [ 1 ] ions follow the law of diffusion, which states substances move from higher concentration to lower as permeability permits. Outside of a(n) [ 2 ] there appears to be a high concentration of sodium ions. Gates open and allow these [ 3 ] to enter the neuron. This action creates a difference in the [ 4 ] of ions. Like repel and opposites attract. Therefore a push of ions creates voltage/current. The term nerve impulse is used to describe this [ 5 ] action.
Connective tissue are non-vascular (lacking a blood supply)? true or false
Which fibers are grouped in long, parallel bundles, and they are flexible but only slightly elastic?
These cells accumulate fat, they enlarge, and their nuclei are pushed to one side. [ adipose - areolar ]
The primary purpose of stratification, or layering, in epithelial tissue is for increased _____________.
What is the non-living layer of the epithelium called [ basement membrane - squamous ]?
fashions the glands of the body
single layer of flat cells
Which cell rest on a basement membrane [ epithelium - connective ]?
Which is not a characteristic of epithelium?
Which is not associated with connective tissues?
Which cells are multinucleated?
Which of the following is not connective?
Of the three listed, which is the most numerous?
Glands that secrete their products into tissue fluid or blood are called [ endocrine - exocrine ] glands.
What is the name of a stretchable protein found in many fibers?
The outermost layer of the skin (epidermis) is stratified squamous epithelium. As the older cells are pushed outward, they accumulate a protein called [ keratin - collagen ]
Connective tissues store fat. true or false
The study of tissue is known as [ histology - cytology ]?
the non-living layer on the underside of epithelial tissue
a cord of connective tissue
non-living component of connective tissue
thick threads of protein
thin protein fibers that form complex networks
provides excretion, secretion, and absorption
cells that become quite large when filled with fluid
provides support and movement
What type of cells produce cartilage [ chondrocytes - osteocytes ]?
flat, scale-like cells composing the epidermis
The cells of pseudostratified columnar epithelium appear stratified or layered, but they are not. true or false
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