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Biology Semester test 2020
Unit 1 - 8 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (80)
The study of life
A testable prediction.
Made up of more than one cell.
Made of a single cell
Unicellular organisims that live together in groups but have no relationship to each other.
A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data.
Hypothesis stating that life could arise from nonliving matter.
development of life from preexisting life
the group that does not receive the experimental treatment.
A factor that can change in an experiment
A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
A subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
A subatomic particle that has a negative charge
In a solution, the substance that dissolves the solute.
A substance that is dissolved in a solution.
A combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined
A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
molecule with an unequal distribution of charge, resulting in the molecule having a positive end and a negative end
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution
a solution whose solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration inside a cell
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane
release of substances out a cell by the fusion of a vesicle with the membrane.
the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy
the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
a property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot
A chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction
A substance produced in a chemical reaction
reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
Energy needed to get a reaction started
Change the shape of an enzyme so that it can no longer speed up a reaction.
A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing
a region on an enzyme that binds to a protein or other substance during a reaction.
induced fit model
enzyme model where the substrate induces the enzyme to alter its shape slightly so it fits better
Conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy.
All of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy.
A stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast
fluid portion of the chloroplast; outside of the thylakoids
Green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis
An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
Small openings on the underside of a leaf through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move
A process for synthesizing ATP using the energy of an electrochemical gradient and the ATP synthase enzyme.
cluster of chlorophyll and proteins found in thylakoids
Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
A simple sugar that is an important source of energy.
Process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen
A process in which large molecules are broken down
A process in which large molecules are built from small molecules
An organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.
lactic acid fermentation
the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates that produces lactic acid as the main end product
first step in releasing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
Respiration that requires oxygen
first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus
second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
the third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles
the final phase of cell division, between anaphase and interphase, in which the chromatids or chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell and two nuclei are formed.
Division of the cytoplasm during cell division
part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides
a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
Pair of chromosomes that are the same size, same appearance and same genes.
A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.
Bases with a double-ring structure.
cytosine, thymine, uracil
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
Central Dogma of Biology
DNA -> RNA -> Protein
sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein
expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein
transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome
messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome
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