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Bio Exam 3
Textbook Material and Relevant Old Test questions
Terms in this set (124)
The oxygen Revolution
How biologists study Bacteria and Archaea
Use enrichment cultures, use metagenomics, evaluate molecular phylogenies
Bacteria and archaea use this to covert molecular nitrogen to ammonia
Malaria life cycle
these cells enter the bloodstream of a human, then it infects liver cells, then it can change into a distinctive cell type to infect the Host's red blood cells, then it multiplies with asexual reproduction, parasite cells kill the host cells and invade liver or red blood cells, the (Insect) receives the infected blood and form gametes, gametes fuse to form diploid zygote and undergoes meiosis, the haploid can now infect humans again.
Protists that cause malaria
Primarily Plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax
caused by Trypanosoma gambiense and Trypanosoma rhodesiense; also called "sleeping sickness", occurs in Africa, potentially fatal, transmitted by bites from tsetse flies.
Trypanosoma cruzi; affects 16-18 million people and causes 50,000 deaths a year, primarily Central and South America
Archaeon surrounds and engulfs bacterium, bacterium lives within host archaeal cell, Host supplies bacterium with protection and carbon compounds while the bacterium supplies host cell with ATP. (also creates Chloroplasts)
Origin of Mitochondrion?
Free-living alpha-proteobacterium; Endosymbiosis, 2 billion years ago, theory developed in 1981
Origin of Chloroplast
Free-living cyanobacterium; Endosymbiosis, Photosynthetic protist is engulfed by a predatory protist, nucleus from photosynthetic protist is lost, organelle is formed.
Why does Meiosis Exist (sexual reproduction)
Parents can produce offspring that lack harmful alleles, genetically diverse offspring are more likely to resist evolving pathogens and parasites.
Mycelium, hyphae, and large surface areas
Mutualism, Parasitism, Commensalism; examples given in text are EMF and AMF
first appeared in oceans 2.7-2.5 billion years ago. First organism to perform oxygenic photosynthesis.
How long ago did oxygen appear in the ocean?
2.3-2.1 billion years ago
Respiration with oxygen
Respiration with gases other than oxygen
Why is aerobic respiration so important to organism?
More potential energy in glucose can be released. Nothing else has altered the nature of the planet as much as the appearance of oxygen.
What form does Nitrogen have to take in order to make amino acids and nucleotides?
NH3 and NO3
Plasmodium infestans (protist)
caused potato famine in Ireland
Why is sexual reproduction of Plasmodium in the mosquito beneficial for the protist?
Genetic diversity helps evade the host's immune system
Mitochondria and bacterial cells replicate by
Plasmodium falciparum (protist)
How many species of Plasmodium protist can parasitize humans?
Mitochondria have how many membranes?
Chloroplast has how many membranes?
Occurred in plantae
Spread to other lineages, though some descendants lost photosynthesis
Fungus Biologist who studied on British Isles, estimated 1.5 million species of fungi on Earth
living together relationship
type of symbiotic relationship in which both species involved benefit.
type of symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits while the other species degrades
type of symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other species in not affected in the relationship
mutualistic relationship with temperate forest plants; they bind to the plant's root tips; provide nitrogen, phosphorus, and amino acids to trees from the soil in exchange for carbon compounds and sugar; ecto=outer
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (endomycorrhizal)
mutualistic relationship with grassland and tropical forest plant; grow inside of the root cells; transfers nitrogen and/or phosphorus to the plant in exchange for sugar and carbon compounds; arbuscular=little tree
Cell walls of AMF hyphae contain large quantities of a glycoprotein; enriches the organic mater in soil and binds organic compounds to sand or clay when cells die
mutualistic relationship with tree leaves; increase tolerance of drought in leaves, and can kill the animals that eat the leaves; receives sugar from plant
mutualistic partners with ascomycete or cyanobacterium or algae
Ant mutualism with fungi
ants provide food for fungi and they eat part of the fungi
establishing a specified set of growing conditions (temp., light, substrate, food, etc.) these cells that thrive under specific conditions increase in numbers enough to be isolated and studied in detail
Allows scientists to rapidly identify and characterize organisms that have never been seen.
Evaluating Molecular Phylogenies
Study where species belong on Woese's tree of life, major groups (archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes)
unicellular fungi; type of morphology
multicellular, filamentous structures; type of morphology
Why is it so hard to study fungi past?
fungi fossils are very rare
long, narrow filaments that branch frequently; make up the reproductive structure and the mycelia
cross-walls that divide cells in the filaments of fungi
fungi that do not have septa; they are not divided into separate cells
Text: The adaptive value of sexual reproduction has been a major area of discussion in biology over the past several decades. One hypothesis that has won support proposes that sex is primarily a way to keep up with, or even stay ahead of, one's biological natural enemies, such as parasites and pathogens. Your textbook calls this:
The changing-environment hypothesis
Text: What is a fungus that exists as a single cell called?
Text: As your textbook discusses, fungi are involved in many very important symbiotic relationships with plants. Which type of fungi are involved in a symbiotic relationship with tree species in the temperate zones of the earth, providing nitrogen and some phosphorus to the trees in exchange for sugars?
Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF)
Lecture: For a new species to arise by simple hybridization between two existing species, it is obviously necessary that the two parent species be closely related. But what additional factor must be present for a new species to become established in this way?
The new species must exist in a different ecological niche than either parent
Lecture: What reproductive isolating mechanism did Dr. Burk claim was the most common in species that overlap in space, both in animals and plants?
Lecture: From the point of view of the costs suffered by a female mating with a male of the incorrect species, which of the reproductive isolating mechanisms (Hybrid sterility, differences in breeding time, behavioral isolation, or "mechanical" isolation) would represent the most costly mistake on the female's part?
Lecture: Imagine that, due to human accidental transport, a species of mouse from Africa has just in the past year been established in South America. If so, which of the following reproductive isolating mechanisms (Hybrid sterility, zygote mortality, differences in breeding time) is one that may possibly be acting to prevent this newly-introduced species from successful breeding with one of the resident species of mice?
It could be hybrid sterility, zygote mortality, or differences in breeding time.
Lecture: Imagine that, unlike the case in which a species of mouse was introduced to South America from Africa in a year, a species of mouse from Africa was introduced into South America in over thousands of years and has coexisted with the native species. Under that scenario, which of the alternatives (differences in breeding time, zygote mortality, or hybrid sterility) is most likely the reproductive isolating mechanism preventing the new species from interbreeding with the original resident species?
differences in breeding time
Text: Bacteria are the pathogens responsible for many lethal human diseases. Of the four listed (tuberculosis, bubonic plague, syphilis, malaria) which one is NOT caused by a bacterium?
Text: Interestingly, in recent decades a number of new species of bacteria have been discovered and named, even though no one has ever seen them! Which of these techniques (Bio-filming, metagenomics, enrichment cultures, DNA-DNA hybridization) for studying bacteria allow scientists to do this?
Text: The atmosphere, geology, and organisms of the Earth were transformed when large amounts of oxygen gas came to be present in the atmosphere. What group of organisms were primarily responsible for the initial rise of oxygen levels in the Earth's atmosphere?
Text: Which of the following (N2, NH3, NO2, NO3) is a form of nitrogen that only some bacteria and archaea can utilize biologically?
N2 (Molecular nitrogen)
Text: Of the diseases listed (Trypanosomiasis, Chagas' Disease, Malaria, Cholera) three are caused by protists. Which is not?
Text: One of the strongest pieces of evidence in favor of Lynn Margulis' "endosymbiosis theory" for the origin of the mitochondrion is that DNA sequencing shows that the DNA of mitochondria mostly closely resembles the DNA of? (Cyanobacteria, Archaea, amoebas, alpha-proteobacteria)
Text: Which of the following CORRECTLY matches a type of photosynthetic endosymbiosis with the type of organism that became the chloroplast in that type of endosymiosis?
Lecture: Which of the following is NOT part of the HWE?
It takes one generation of random mating to set up the equilibrium allele frequencies (because it's the GENOTYPE not the allele)
Lecture: Which is NOT a condition that must be met in order for a population to be in HWE?
All alleles must be completely dominant or completely recessive
Lecture: Genetic drift occurs when which condition is violate? (All genotypes must have equal fitness, there can be no immigration or emigration, the population must be big enough to prevent random evolution due to statistical sampling error)
The population must be big enough to prevent random evolution due to statistical sampling error
Lecture: Which is not a stochastic evolutionary force? (gene flow, assortative mating, genetic drift, mutation)
Lecture: How important are mutations in the OVERALL process of evolution?
Crucial, evolution cannot continue without them
Lecture: Within a population, genetic drift will...
result in the loss of some alleles and fixation on others
Lecture: The most important effect of gene flow in the overall evolutionary process is...
to prevent different populations of a species from diverging from each other genetically
Lecture: Which of the following would best indicate that a population had undergone a recent genetic bottleneck?
The population is large, and is the only population of its species, but it has little genetic variation
Lecture: Which of the following was use to illustrate the genetic drift phenomenon called "founder effect"?
Gypsy moths in North America
Lecture: Compared to the HWE predictions, assortative mating...
alters the genotype frequencies but not he allele frequencies
Lecture: Compared to the HWE predictions, sexual selection...
Alters both the allele frequencies and the genotype frequencies
Lecture: Imagine that in population, females show strong mate choice selection favoring the males that express the dominant phenotype. What would you expect the long-term outcome of such mate choice to be?
loss of recessive allele
Lecture: Data of Peppered Moth study:
1st: 100CC 100Cc 50cc
2nd: 50CC 50Cc 10cc
What is the fitness of the cc genotype, and what type of natural selection is present?
0.4 and direction selection against a recessive allele
Lecture: What type of natural selection was said to be the type operating in most species most of the time?
The one that prevents any evolutionary change from happening.
Lecture: Which of the following is NOT correct? (In BALANCING selection the heterozygotes have fitness 1.0 and homozygotes have fitness less than 1.0, If there is a stable outcome then STABILIZING selection was occurring, In DISRUPTIVE selection both homozygotes have fitness 1.0 but the heterozygotes have fitness of less than 1.0)
If there is a stable outcome, stabilizing selection was occurring.
Lecture: Imagine a situation in the future, in Africa, in which rates of malaria are lower than now, but malaria is still present. Also, while medical advances allow individuals with sickle cell anemia to survive longer than they do now, they still have a lower life expectancy than average. In the situation described, what type of selection would be occurring?
Balancing selection, but probably with different equilibrium allele frequencies than now.
Lecture: A conclusion that one can draw from the Sickle Cell Anemia example is:
the fitness of a genotype is determined by the environment it is in
Lecture: Which is a kind of speciation that does not increase the number of species on Earth?
Lecture: The biological species definition is far from perfect, but it does not work well for...
sexual speices that do overlap geographically
Lecture: As opposed to your text, what does Dr. Burk think is the main problem with the "Phylogenetic species definition"?
It is really just as subjective and arbitrary as any other species definition and would result in recognition of dozens of species of living humans.
Lecture: In order for populations to diverge and become separate species, what cannot be happening?
Lecture: What was used in class as an example of allopatric speciation?
Lecture: What speciation is believed to be most common overall?
Lecture: What speciation is surprisingly common in parasites?
Sympatric speciation via disruptive selection
Lecture: What speciation is surprisingly common in flowering plants?
sympatric speciation via hybridization and polyploidy
Lecture: Which is true?
-Germ line is less segregated in plants than animals
-Inter-species fertilization is more likely in plants than animals
-self fertilization is more common in plants than in animals
-all of these
All of these
Text: Carl Woese revolutionized our understanding of the tree of life when he showed that one group of simple, single-celled, bacteria-like organisms (the Archaea) were actually more closely related to eukaryotes (such as humans) than to true bacteria. What technique for studying bacteria led him to make that significant discovery?
evaluating molecular phylogenies
Text: Students of the ancient Earth "are virtually certain that no free molecular oxygen (O2) existed for the first 2.3 billion years of Earth's existence". What group of organisms was first responsible for "oxygenic" photosynthesis, beginning the conversion of Earth's atmosphere into one rich in oxygen?
Text: With respect to nitrogen fixation, which of the below are able to convert nitrogen from N2 in the atmosphere to ammonia (NH3)?
-some bacteria that live in the root nodules of plants
-all of these
all of these
Text: Which is NOT true concerning the life cycle of malaria?
-for the malaria cycle to be continued, a human must suffer two mosquito bites
-The first cells infected in a human host are the red blood cells
-Male and female gametes of the pathogen combine in the gut of a mosquito
-the malaria pathogens enter a human via the saliva of a biting mosquito
The first cells infected in a human host are the red blood cells
Text: It is believed that the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells are derived from a once free-living..
Text: It is believed that the chloroplasts of a green plant are derived from a once free-living..
Lecture: What is true about HWE?
Most populations violate HWE, and it takes one generation of random mating to establish equilibrium GENOTYPE frequencies, All genotypes must survive equally well and be equally fertile, the population must be large enough to eliminate statistical sampling error, mating must be random between genotypes
Lecture: What is not true about HWE?
all genes must show complete dominance and recessiveness
Lecture: What is the significance of mutations (by themselves) as direct causes of evolution?
As direct causes, their effect is so minor that once can ignore them
Lecture: What is not true of genetic drift?
It tends to make different drifting population more alike in allele frequencies
Lecture: What is true of genetic drift?
It reduces the amount of genetic variety within a population, its importance depends on the population size being more important in small populations, It typically results in the loss of one allele and fixation of the other
Lecture: What is indicative of a "founder effect" rather than of a "genetic bottleneck"?
Multiple populations of a species, one of which has little or no genetic variety
Lecture: What is the most important effect of gene flow in evolution?
To prevent different populations of a species from diverging genetically from each other
Lecture: What is the one phenomenon mentioned in class that disrupts the HWE WITHOUT actually causing evolution?
Lecture: Imagine that, due to habitat modification, pip vine plants and pipeline swallowtails go extinct. After that happens, a study of the Limenitis anthems butterflies gives the following data.
100 are born of each white admirals, hybrids, and red-spotted purples. After bird predation, 60 White Admirals 40 hybrids and 20 Red-spotted purples.
What is the fitness of the red-spotted purples? What type of natural selection is occurring?
fitness=0.33=20/60, and directional selection is occurring
Lecture: Selection Dr. Burk said that the type of natural selection that is most common and is acting on most genes in most populations most of the time?
Lecture: What is not true concerning the various types of natural selection?
The only type that lead, over time, to a stable outcome is Stabilizing selection
Lecture: What IS true concerning various kinds of natural selection?
the fittest genotype is often the least common genotype in balancing selection, both homozygotes have a fitness of 1.0 but heterozygotes have fitness less than 1.0 in Disruptive selection, Directional selection will eliminate a disfavored dominant much faster than the disfavored recessive
Lecture: Imagine in the near future in west Africa rates of malaria stay where they are now due to increasing resistance to chemicals by the pathogens and the mosquitoes, while sickle cell anemia is eliminated by effective medical treatment. What would we expect to happen under these circumstances?
We would observe Direction selection to eliminate the dominant A allele
Lecture: What is a valid conclusion from the illustration of sickle cell anemia?
Alleles don't have fitnesses but genotypes do, the fitness of a genotype depends on the environment it is in, in terms of population genetics modern medicine is attempting to put all genes into the HWE.
Lecture: Although it often is inadequate, Ernst Mayr's "Biological Species Definition" does work well for..
Sympatric sexual species
Lecture: What "mode of speciation" was said in class to be the most common way in which the number of species increases overall?
Text: What is the "Paradox of sex"?
Why females reproduce sexually since the progeny of asexual females could produce twice as many progeny. (Sexual selection creates more diverse genes)
Text: Typical multicellular fungus body consists of a mass of filaments known as...
Text: Which is true concerning Fungal symbioses?
Lichen are a mutualistic partnership between a fungus and either a cyanobacterium or an alga, Mycorrhizal fungi benefit from their partnership with plants by receiving carbon compounds such as sugars, EMF are typically found in association with trees in temperates parts of the world
Lecture: Sympatric speciation via hybridization and polyploidy?
Requires a polyploid mutation in a germ-line cell
For sympatric speciation via simple hybridization to result in formation of a new, third species, in addition to the two parent species
The new hybrid species must be able to live inane ecological niche separate from both parents
Lecture: What "reproductive isolating mechanism" did Dr. Burk suggest is most common in animals and plants?
Lecture: Imagine that due to transportation by humans two previously allopatric closely-related species have just recently come into sympatric contact. According to "Dobzhansky's Principle" what is at work?
Behavioral isolation, zygote or embryo mortality, differences in breeding times
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