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All living organisms must... (energy)

Produce energy from the environment in which they live, store energy for future use, and use energy in a controlled manner.

Energy of ATP becomes available when...

The chemical bond is broken

Light-dependent reactions...

convert light energy into chemical energy

Light-independent reactions...

produce glucose

Where does photosynthesis occur?


Where do light-dependent reactions take place?

Thylakoid disks

What is the molecule that traps the sun's energy?


How is the energy produced in the electron transport chain used?

To form ATP or to pump hydrogen ions into the center of the thylakoid disc.

What happens once the electrons reach the end of the second electron transport chain?

The NADP+ takes them to the stroma of the chloroplast and combines with H+ to form NADPH

What happens in photolysis?

Water molecules are split for electrons; 2 water molecules yield an oxygen molecule, four electrons, and four hydrogen ions.

Where does the Calvin Cycle take place?

The stroma

What does the Calvin Cycle use?

ATP and NADPH formed in the light-dependent reactions

How many rotations yeild glucose? (CALVIN CYCLE)


What is cellular respiration?

The breaking down of glucose to obtain energy

What happens in glycolysis?

Glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvic acid.

Glycolysis is ______.


ATP gain in glycolysis

Two fuel the process and four are produced so the net gain is two ATP

What is the carrier protein after glycolysis?


What does NAD+ form?

NADH when carrying an electron

What happens after glycolysis? (With the pyruvic acid before the half step)

The pyruvic acid molecules move to the mitochondria

Where does glycolysis occur?

The cytoplasm of the cell

Tell about the half step with pyruvic acid. (Process and produces)

The pyruvic acid loses one molecule of CO2 and combines with Coenzyme A to form Acetyl CoA. This produces NADH and H+

What happens in the Citric acid cycle? Also called?

Krebs cycle; glucose is broken down

ATP gain in the Krebs cycle

One for each turn

What electron carriers are used in the Krebs cycle?

NAD+ and FAD

What are formed in the Krebs cycle? (Besides ATP)

3 molecules of NADH+H+ and one FADH2 are formed

What is produced in the Krebs cycle?

ATP and CO2

Where is the electron transport chain located?

Inner mitochondrion

What passes the electrons to the electron transport chain? (CR)


How is the energy lost in CR electron transport chain used?

Pump H+ ions into the center of the mitochondrion or to form ATP

What is the final electron acceptor? What does it do?

It is oxygen; Oxygen combines with four H+ ions to form two molecules of water.

How many molecules of ATP are formed from the electron transport chain?


What can the cell NOT replace in anaerobic conditions?


Tell about lactic acid fermentation.

Two molecules of pyruvic acid use NADH to form two molecules of lactic acid. The NAD+ is then free to be used in glycolysis in which two more ATP are formed. The lactic acid then is transported to the liver where it is converted back into pyruvic acid.

What causes muscle fatigue?

Lactic acid buidup in the muscles.

Where is lactic acid produced?

In the muscles during strenuous exercise.

What does alcoholic fermentation produce?

CO2 and ethyl alcohol

What is an organism that uses alcoholic fermentation?


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