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Kiersten is a lifesaver
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Is Batman's relationship with the Joker more representative of Kantian morals or Utilitarianism? Fully explain your answer.
Batman's relationship with the Joker is Kantian because you aren't supposed to use people as a means to an end, killing the Joker would be morally wrong
Explain the trolley problem and some of its varieties. How does the trolley problem demonstrate some ethical dilemmas with utilitarianism?
The ethical dilemma is is it okay to kill one person to save another person? The trolley problem says that a train is barreling toward 5 people on the tracks, do you pull the lever, switch tracks, and kill 1 man to save the other 5?
Explain Kant's Categorical Imperative. How does Kant's worldview relate to Newton's?
Categorical Imperative-moral code, act like the world is universal, never use people as a means to an end, be morally good
Kant and Newton believe the same, there are universal truths
Is existentialism compatible with the Enlightenment and its worldview? Why or why not?
Enlightenment- supernatural to natural, there is an absolute truth
ABSOLUTELY NOT- Enlightenment said absolute truth is a thing everything is the same for everyone. Existentialists said truth is different for every person, there is only experience
Analyze how Hume and Descartes would differ.
Hume said we are controlled by passion, we learn through the senses.
Descartes said to be human is to be rational, rejected empiricism
Evaluate Jacques Derrida's concept of logocentrism. Is western culture guilty of logocentrism? What did Derrida mean by aporia?
Derrida said that we put too much faith in words, instead of language, there is too much risk in sugar coating something and we should just say what we mean instead of trying to fit in this "socially acceptable" box. Aporia are blind spots
Explain the difference between a priori and a posteriori. Synthetic and analytic?
A priori-Knowledge independent of experience
A Posteriori-Knowledge acquired through experience
Explain why and how the European worldview shifts in the Early Modern Period. How does the Early Modern worldview differ from the medieval?
Medieval-Great Chain of Being
Reformation-Protestant religion, faith supersedes tradition
Why is Descartes considered the first "modern" philosopher?
I think therefore I am.-Doubt is the razor for determining if we know anything-Rationality is the tool-Cannot know god through rationality-separates religion from science
Destroys the acceptance of authority. Can't prove god exists but you can't prove he doesn't exist, so ignore him keep it out of philosophy
How are good and evil explained by Hobbes? Augustine? Nietzsche?
Hobbes-People are evil-Government needs to make people be good
Augustine-Evil is because of disordered will-evil is just absence of faith/God
Nietzsche- no such thing as good and evil.
For John Locke, why should governments be tolerant of religious differences?
Cannot rationally prove that any religion is correct- political tolerance
If you want a democracy to work, you can't demonize people for their differences
What two principles of common sense does George Berkeley defend?
Say's God is all seeing eye of Sauron
Simplest explanation is the best
What is Hume's argument for the conclusion that causes and effects are discoverable not by reason but by experience?
Predicting the future based on experience, no such thing as cause and effect, just assumptions
Causation is a fiction
Based on experience, people have not risen from the dead nor have they walked on water, therefore religion does not exist and was based on a lie
Explain what Hume means when he says that reason is the slave of the passions.
Passion drives us as human beings
Emotion dictate behavior
What is the goal of history, according to Hegel?
All history was driven by conflict
Every idea has 3 stages-Thesis-Antithesis-Synthesis
Get rid of weak ideas and make strong ideas
Goal is to create a better society
According to Kierkegaard, why is Christianity characterized as the "highest passion"?
First existentialist, unauthentic Christians, defends faith and religion it's absurd but thats why its the highest passion, living life of passion is being authentic
Explain how the ideas of Hegel influence the ideas of Marx.
Economic conflict drives history. A few rich people tried to control the other people
Nationalism and religion are opiums of the masses
Needs to be a final ultimate conflict where the poor achieve class consciousness and become wealthy
What did John Stuart Mill believe and how do his ideas influence us today?
John Stuart Mill was one of the first men to believe that women were equal to men, he believed that if we suppressed half of the population, society wouldn't grow. He said women are just as smart as men and need to be employed in every part of society
Explain why Nietzsche is a complete break with much of the philosophical tradition of the western world.
Truth is not real- truth is made up my the super man to exploit the weak
Morality doesn't exist
Good and bad don't exist
What do the Pragmatists believe? How are they influenced by Darwin and the Civil War?
Pragmatists base importance on things that are useful.
Sum up the essence of Wittgenstein's philosophy.
Basically said that we put too much pressure on language and not enough on the words, we also need to say what we mean instead of dancing around it.
What do existentialists believe?
Focus on the self and living authentically
How is a deconstructionist similar to or different from an existentialist? What philosopher embodies deconstructionism? Existentialism? What are some key concepts of each?
Deconstructionists are similar to existentialists because they look at everyone's view to discover the truth and they value everyone like the existentialist values the individual. Derrida embodies deconstructionism, Nietzsche and Sartre embody existentialism. Key concepts of deconstructionism include: exposing the "deeper meaning" of things. Key concepts of existentialism include: individuals
How is Aristotle's vision of being and essence different from Heidegger's?
Aristotle-Aristotle believed that we had to live in the now as well, but he thought we were more connected to nature Heidegger-Said we will all die at some point so we have to live now, being is living, not being is death, he also said that all being is connected
What were the basic assumptions of classical and medieval philosophy? Do those assumptions still apply to modern philosophy? Post-modern society?
Classical-Universal truth, religion, divine law. Most modern philosophy has moved away from religion and has moved towards more emperialistic ideas. Post-modern society rejects absolute truth and focuses on essentialism
Why does Simone de Beauvoir argue that we all need freedom? Does she ever justify violence? Why or why not?
She argued that we all need the same freedoms, and that our purpose in life was to be free. She justified violence if people were trying to take away freedoms.
Summarize Simone de Beauvoir's analysis of women in western culture.
Women are trapped in their assigned roles. They stay there because it is easier than fighting to get out of it
How does Augustine attempt to solve the problem of evil?
By saying that there really is no evil, just lack of good
Describe Plato's epistemology
The world is unchanging because everything already has a form
Explain how Augustine reconciles faith and reason.
Faith amps up reason. And there is no evil, there is lack of good or lack of faith
How does Augustine solve the issue of natural evil?
There is no evil, we just simply stray from the path of faith
Describe the concept of "the Great Chain of Being" developed by Plotinus and utilized by Augustine
There is an order created by god that places everything in the universe in order of importance
Why does Heidegger say that we need to spend more time walking in graveyards?
More time in graveyards mean we won't live forever, and we'll live our lives more fully
For Sartre, what does he mean when he says that "hell is other people"? What does he mean when he uses the term "bad faith"?
Other people always want something from us, and we can never give enough, they continue to want. Bad faith is yielding to societal norms instead of being authentic
Contrast the point of life for de Beauvoir, Augustine, and Nietzsche
De Beauvoir-To be free Augustine-To get closer to god Nietzsche-There is no point
Explain the main idea of Albert Camus' "The Myth of Sisyphus."
We have to accept our failures the same way we accept our achievments
The superman that Nietzsche believed would enforce new ethical values/morals to control the masses.
Explain what Nietzsche meant when he said that Christianity and Judaism had a slave mentality.
Because religion tells people that they will have a better life in with god and to turn the other cheek when you are wronged
Explain how each of the following philosophers would define truth: a) Sartre; b) Plato; c)Augustine; d) Nietzsche; e) Derrida; f) Dewey
Sartre-truth is living authentically, not in a role
Plato-Truth is objective and there are absolutes Augustine-Truth is faith
Nietzsche-There is not truth
Derrida-There is a hidden truth behind every action Dewey-Truth is the greatest good for the most people
Explain what Sartre meant by the phrase "existence precedes essence."
We choose who we are and are responsible for that
In what ways does Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot reflect 20th century philosophy?
The only one who can give you purpose is you, not some outside source
Explain the essential ideas of the stoics.
Happiness is the purpose of life, but not if it hurts others
Explain the essential ideas of the epicureans
Pleasure is the purpose of life
How would each of the following explain why bad things happen to good people? a) Augustine; b)Nietzsche; c) Kant; d) Sartre; d) The Utilitarian's
Augustine-We strayed from faith
Nietzche-there is no such thing as good and bad
Kant- we have free will and people weren't practicing the categorical imperative
Sartre-Because bad things happen
Utilitarians-crack a few eggs to make an omelet
Identify three philosophers who defended absolute truth and three philosophers who rejected the concept of absolute truth and explain why they did so
Defend: Plato-truth will not corrupt the soul, Aristotle-, de Carte-doubt true to be true, Augustine-gotta have faith is the lord, Aquinas
Reject:Nietzche, Derride, Sarte, Hume-All are existentialist who say that absolute truth doesn't exist
Briefly summarize the philosophy of Karl Marx
Explain Aquinas' medieval synthesis and why it was so important
Accept science. Knights travel halfway across the world to kill muslims. Muslims largely killed them. Muslim culture was advanced, preserved Aristotle's writing. Scholars translated it. Auquinas could read Aristotle's workCan know god through science and nature. Can know god through revelation. Science and faith go hand in hand
Explain what philosophers or philosophies would best support the following forms of government and why: a) Utilitarianism; b) Plato; c) Nietzsche; d) Divine Command Theory; e) Deconstructionism
Utilitarianism-Democracy because it's the greatest good for the greatest number of people
Plato-Monarchy because he believed in aristocracy Nietzsche-Totalitarianism, he supported Hitler for a time Divine Command Theory-Theology, because duh, religion
How do we learn from these philosophers' perspectives? a) Locke; b) Augustine; c) Hume; d) Dewey; e) Descartes
Locke-Protection of property, religious tolerance, observe the world
Augustine-If you believe in something you have to commit to it
Hume-Passion controls humans
Dewey-Nature will bring us to our senses
Descartes-Doubt is being
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