a member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad
those who practice the religion of Islam; believe in one God, and the prophet Muhammad whom they believe God spoke through
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
a member of the branch of Islam that regards Ali as the legitimate successor to Mohammed and rejects the first three caliphs
the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth
a doctrine within Islam. Commonly translated as "Holy War," Jihad represents either a personal or collective struggle on the part of Muslims to live up the religious standards set by the Qu'ran.
Who: Governor of Syria, Muawiya, and his successors, Shi'ites, Sunnis, Kharijites, Uthman. What: Dynasty based on succession rather than election following the first period of caliphates. Continued advances in the kingdom, venturing as far as China and deep into Asia, claiming Afghanistan for a Muslim base. Fell apart due to tension in the kingdom between the Sunnis, Shi'ites, and Kharijites, the malawis (Muslim converts) and born Muslims, and the religion and state. When: 661-750 Where: Middle East, Damascus Why: Beginning of great strife in the Muslim community
City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca.
is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to date events in many Muslim countries and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic holy days and festivals.
Companion of 1st muslim leader after Muhammad. Regarded by Sunni's as the 1st caliph and rightful succesor. The Shi'ah regard him as a traitor of Muhammad. Known as best interpretter of dreams following Muhammad's death.
Who: Prophet, teacher, founder of Islam What: Lived a normal life for forty years, and then retreated to a cave wherein the angle Gabriel told him all about Allah, he then preached. However, he was soon forced to flee to Medina by merchants and religious leaders who were losing business because he was causing people to rethink their ways. In Medina he gradually formed an army, and went back to take Mecca by force. He then became the leader of the Umma, or Muslim community.