Atoms and Periodic Table TEST Review
Terms in this set (37)
Basic unit of matter
A pure substance that cannot be broken down into any other substances by chemical or physical means
Each box on the periodic table contains a different element
a subatomic particle with a positive charge.
DETERMINES THE ELEMENT.
A subatomic particle with No charge. It is neutral.
Negatively charged subatomic particle. In the outside of an atom in a fuzzy cloud. The exact location can't be pinpointed, however electrons are placed in energy levels.
First energy level can hold 2 electrons
Second energy level can hold 8 electrons
An arrangement of elements in columns, based on a set of properties that repeat from row to row.
Demitri Mendeleev came up with the first version of a periodic table based upon atomic mass.
The current periodic table, developed by MOSELEY, goes in order of atomic number.
THOUGHT ATOMS EXIST, BUT HAD NO EVIDENCE
1808 - gathered evidence favoring Democritus' theory. Proposed an Atomic Theory.
1) Every element is made of tiny, unique particles called atoms that cannot that cannot be subdivided.
2) Atoms of the same element are exactly alike.
3) Atoms of different elements can join to form molecules.
discovered the electrons using the cathode ray tube experiment
discovered the nucleus using the gold-foil experiment
discovered the neutron in the 1930's. It took longer to discover this subatomic particles because it didn't have a charge like the others.
experiment by Rutherford that discovered the dense nucleus
Cathode ray tube
Experiment by J.J. Thomson that discover the ELECTRON
States that when the elements are arranged by increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their chemical and physical properties
two elements chemically combined
an electron in the outer shell of an atom
Go UP and DOWN on the periodic table. There are 18 groups. Groups determine the properties of the element.
Group 1 elements have 1 valence electron
Group 2 elements have 2 valence electrons
Group 13 elements have 3 valence electrons
Group 14 elements have 4 valence electrons
Group 15 elements have 5 valence electrons
Group 16 elements have 6 valence electrons
Group 17 elements have 7 valence electrons
Group 18 elements have 8 valence electrons
Go ACROSS on the periodic table. There are 7 periods. The period number is the number of energy levels (shells). The further you go down the more energy levels they have.
Group 1 elements. They are VERY reactive because they only have one valence electron which is easily removed.
Alkaline Earth Metals
Group 2 elements. They are reactive but less reactive than the Alkali Metals. They become +2 ions
Groups 3-12 in the periodic table
The elements along the stair step-Boron, Silicon, Germanium, Arsenic, Antimony, Tellurium. Can conduct heat and electricity under certain conditions.
Group 17 elements. They combine easily with group 1 elements to form salts.
When they become ions they are -1 ions
Group 18 elements. These elements do not form compounds with other elements because they have a full outer energy level and are stable "happy".
a version of an atom with a different number of neutrons. Therefore, they have a different mass number but the same atomic number (number of protons)
an atom that is charged (positive or negative)
atoms become ions to fill their outer shells, they do this by gaining or losing electrons
number of protons
average atomic mass (decimal number)
It is a weighted average, so common isotopes have a greater effect than uncommon ones.
number of protons and neutrons (whole number)
The mass number can be written several ways
Element name-mass # Carbon-14
In the upper left or right corner when the atomic number is at the bottom.
Calculating number of neutrons
Mass number-atomic number=number of neutrons
If the mass number isn't given round the atomic mass then subtract the neutrons.
left side of periodic table
right side of the periodic table
An atom that does not have a positive or negative charge. Neutral atoms have the same number of PROTONS and ELECTRONS
6.02 x 10^23
The mass in grams of one mole of a substance
contains the protons and neutrons.
Overall the nucleus has a positive charge
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