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Unit 4: Community Ecology & Biomes
Terms in this set (88)
Change over time
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
All the genes, including all the different alleles for each gene, that are present in a population at any one time
changes in the genetic material
Movement of alleles into or out of a population due to the migration of individuals to or from the population
A change in the gene pool of a population due to chance
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.
Ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment
inherited characteristic that increases an organism's chance of survival
Selection by humans for breeding of useful traits from the natural variation among different organisms
Formation of new species
The formation of new species in populations that are geographically isolated from one another.
The formation of new species in populations that live in the same geographic area
A term that typically describes a species that no longer has any known living individuals.
An organism's particular role in an ecosystem, or how it makes its living.
The ability to survive and reproduce under a range of environmental circumstances
A consumer that primarily eats one specific organism or feeds on a very small number of organisms.
a species with a broad niche that can tolerate a wide range of conditions and can use a variety of resources
competition between members of the same species
competition between members of different species
Ecological rule that states that no two species can occupy the same exact niche in the same habitat at the same time
The full range of abiotic conditions under which a species can survive, grow, and reproduce
Part of a species fundamental niche that it actually uses, limited by competition.
When species divide a niche to avoid competition for resources
Species evolve non-overlapping traits to avoid competition
An interaction in which one organism kills another for food.
Something that makes it harder for an organism to survive in an environment and therefore encourages evolution
process in which two or more species evolve in response to changes in each other
A relationship in which one organism lives on or in a host and harms it.
relationship in which two species live closely together
interaction in which one animal (the herbivore) feeds on producers (such as plants)
A relationship between two species in which both species benefit
A relationship between two organisms in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected
the first producers of energy-rich compounds that are later used by other organisms
Plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
Process by which some organisms, such as certain bacteria, use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates
Organisms that must eat other organisms for energy
Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
Consumers that eat only plants
Consumers that eat only animals
An animal that eats both plants and animals
organism that feeds on plant and animal remains and other dead matter
An organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms (key idea -- broken down externally.)
Rank in the feeding hierarchy of a food chain. Organisms at higher trophic levels consume those at lower trophic levels.
Ten percent rule
relates to energy flow in food webs and food chains
only about 10% of useful energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next
the total mass of organisms in a given area or volume.
A linear series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
a system of interlocking and interdependent food chains.
a species on which other species in an ecosystem largely depend, such that if it were removed the ecosystem would change drastically.
a stable, balanced system
An unstable system wtih great change.
A series of predictable and orderly changes within an ecosystem over time.
succession that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists
First species to populate an area during primary succession
symbiotic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism
reestablishment of a damaged ecosystem in an area where the soil was left intact
A stable, mature community that undergoes little or no change in species over time (an idea challenged by many -- perhaps this is too simple)
A species, often introduced by humans, that takes hold outside its native range.
A group of ecosystems that share similar climates and typical organisms
The average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time (what clothes you buy)
the meteorological conditions: temperature and wind and clouds and precipitation (what clothes you wear)
Climatic diagram in which average precipitation and average temperature can be viewed together
Net primary production
the organic matter, or biomass, that remains after cellular respiration
Dense covering formed by the leafy tops of tall trees
the top foliage layer in a forest where the trees extend above surrounding trees
A layer of shorter plants that grow in the shade of a forest canopy.
Photosynthetic plants that grow on other trees rather than supporting themselves
trees that shed their leaves and grow new ones each year
A period of inactivity and lowered body temperature that some animals undergo in summer as a protection against hot weather and lack of food
An area of grassland with scattered trees and bushes
trees that produce their seeds in cones and usually have leaves shaped like needles
A state of greatly reduced body activity that occurs during the winter
A scrubland biome of dense, spiny evergreen shrubs found at midlatitudes along coasts where cold ocean currents circulate offshore; characterized by mild, rainy winters and long, hot, dry summers.
Dense forest of evergreens located in the upper regions of the Northern Hemisphere.
a vast, flat, treeless Arctic region of Europe, Asia, and North America in which the subsoil is permanently frozen.
permanently frozen layer of soil beneath the surface of the ground
A measure of the amount of dissolved salts in a given amount of liquid
Portion of the marine biome that is shallow enough for sunlight to penetrate.
dark layer of the oceans below the photic zone where sunlight does not penetrate
bottom of an aquatic ecosystem; consists of sand and sediment and supports its own community of organisms
a shallow zone in a freshwater habitat where light reaches the bottom and nurtures plants
well-lit, open-water area of a lake or pond
a lowland area, such as a marsh or swamp, that is saturated with moisture, especially when regarded as the natural habitat of wildlife.
the flat, wide area of land along a river
A habitat in which the fresh water of a river meets the salt water of the ocean.
The movement of deep, cold, and nutrient-rich water to the surface
Portion of the shoreline that lies between the high and low tide lines
Area of ocean that extends from the low-tide line out to the edge of the continental shelf
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