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CST Social Studies
Terms in this set (129)
a system of loyalty and protection
a government headed by an emperor or sometimes an empress
Nationalism - government
belief in one's nation or country's people
The series of events that led to the birth of modern science
increased production of crops from the land and a new and more technical approach to the management of agriculture
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
technological change spawned by the invention of the microchip and the internet that enhanced the acquisition, analysis, and transmission of information
A period of time that refers to events or objects that date before the written record existed.
Lower Paleolithic Period
use of crude tools
Upper Paleolithic Period
Exhibiting a greater variety of better-made tools and implements, the wearing of clothing, a highly organized group life, and blossoming skills in art.
domesticated animals, food production, arts of knitting, spinning and weaving cloth , building houses, development of institution
the division of history into periods of time
A United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
an international organization whose goals are to facilitate cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and the achieving of world peace. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries.
the easing of hostility or strained relations, especially between countries.
the revolution of the American colonies against Great Britain
A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion.od.
nation must export more than its imports in order to build a strong and stable economy
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
1765; law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc.
Required colonist to house and feed British soldiers.
1775-1783 American War of Independence. Began as 13 colonies versus Great Britain but soon turned into G.B versus colonies, France, Netherlands, and Spain = American Victory
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution
declined to obey and demanded a constantly increasing level of self-government- return to England or move to Canada
A member of a political group advocating or fighting for national independence, a strong national government, etc.
the study of the earth's physical and cultural features
Exact location of a place on the earth described by global coordinates
The position of a place in relation to another place
study of how the surface features of the Earth
the change (an increase or a decrease) in population numbers resulting from the difference between birth and death rates over one year
a description of how things are grouped in a given space, geographical- describe people, places, and environments everywhere on Earth
Physical characteristics include features such as mountains, rivers and deserts. Human characteristics features created by human interaction with their environment such as canals and roads
how human interact with one another through trade, communications, immigration, and other forms of interaction
an area that has some kind of unifying characteristic such as common language or common government. Formal regions are areas defined by actual political boundaries. Functional regions are defined by a common function such as the area covered by telephone service.
explore the locations of Earth features, how they got there, and why it is so important
layer of air surrounding the earth
All the water on earth
the solid portion of the earth's surface
least 2,000 feet or more above sea level, mountain chains or mountain ranges are mountains found in groups, one range can be found on six of Earth's seven continents
elevation of about 500 to 2,000 feet, found everywhere on the Earth
elevated landforms usually level on top, can be formed by underground volcanic activity, erosion, or colliding tectonic plates
flat or gently rolling lands
found between hills and mountains, containing trees and plants, steep walls and referred to as canyons like the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River
lowlands formed by soil and sediment deposited at the mouths of rivers
a flat-topped hill with steep sides
low areas drained by rivers or low spots in mountains
low series of hills found between a plain and a mountain range
marshes and swamps
Wet lowlands providing growth of such plants as rushes and reeds.
a large body of water surrounded by land
a large natural stream of water flowing in a channel to the sea, a lake, or another such stream.
Oceans currents that flow deep below the surface.
a warm current in the Atlantic Ocean that carries warm water from the equator to the North Atlantic
A cool Pacific Ocean current that moves south along the western coast of North America
The average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time
A tectonic plate boundary where two plates collide, come together, or crash into each other.
The boundary between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other
A plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions
the identity of a group or culture or of an individual as far as one is influenced by one's belonging to a group or culture
enrich every involved group of people with the discovery of shared values and needs, as well as an appreciation for unique cultural characteristics of each
the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible, exotic and supernatural elements.
a group of people living within a certain geographic area
to enter or settle in a country or region to which one is not native
the branch of science of statistics most concerned with the social being of people
Materials or substances such as minerals, forests, water, and fertile land that occur in nature and can be used for economic gain
a natural resource when the primary activities associated with it are extraction and purification
generally living resources which can restock themselves if not overharvested - fish, coffee, and forests
resources that exceed their natural rate of replacement and can run out- water, wind, salt, and coal
general plan and principle related to humans and their environment
Study of the origins and development of people and their societies
Research that provides data that can be expressed with numbers, such as ranks or scales.
the science of behavior and mental processes
humans act as a society and within a society and examines the rules and mechanisms they follow as a society, looks at groups within a society and how they interact
the relationship between cause and effect
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair.
a condition in which two things or groups rely upon one another, as opposed to independence, in which each thing or group relies only upon itself `
the state or fact of remaining the same one or ones, as under varying aspects or conditions
the civilization achievements, and customs of the people of a particular time and place
the process by which people learn the characteristics of their group- the knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, norms, and actions thought appropriate for them
specific ideas that people hold to be true
what a society thinks are right and wrong, every member of the society has a right to participate in his government might be considered to be based on the belief that "all men are created equal"
primary social unit in most societies, language and appropriate forms of interaction, connected to ethnicity, which is partly defined by a person's heritage
important institution in a society, allows for the formal passing on of a culture's collected knowledge
springs a society's primary beliefs and values and can be closely related to other social institutions
an individual can contribute and receive economic reward from his society
Belief in the superiority of one's nation or ethnic group.
introduction of new ways of performing work or organizing societies and can spur drastic changes in culture
The expansion and adoption of a cultural element, from its place of origin to a wider area.
process that individuals and societies go through in changing their behavior and organization to cope with social, economic, and environmental pressures
process of a minority ethnic group largely adopting the culture of the larger group it exists within
exchange or adoption of cultural features when two cultures come into regular direct contact, example is adoption of Christianity and western dress by many Native Americans in the United States
complete disappearance of a culture- can occur from disease, famine, or war when the people of a culture are completely destroyed, or slowly over time as a culture adapts, acculturates, or assimilates to the point where its original features are lost
study of how scarce resources are allocated to satisfy unlimited wants
the value of the scarified alternative, the value of what had to be given up in order to have the output of good
selling and production decisions of the seller and is based on the costs of production
lack of resources
a period of temporary economic decline during which trade and industrial activity are reduced, generally identified by a fall in GDP in two successive quarters.
Lowest point of a wave
a rise in business activity after a recession or depression
an economy based on tradition and "old ways of doing things"
An economic system based on private ownership of capital
An economic system in which the government controls a country's economy.
Means that the government should not interfere in the economy
An economy in which private enterprise exists in combination with a considerable amount of government regulation and promotion.
the idea that a people can vote-or even replace-their lawmakers was not a new idea
New York Stock Exchange
The oldest and largest exchange with the strictest company standards.
Government policy that attempts to manage the economy by controlling taxing and spending.
Articles of Confederation
the first constitution of the United States credited during the Revolutionary War - seeking separation from Great Britain
Constitution of the United States
The foundation of our country's national government; was drafted in Philadelphia in 1787; the Constitution establishes a government with direct authority over all citizens, it defines the powers of the national government, and it establishes protection for the rights of states and of every individual.
The convention in Philadelphia in 1787 (May 25 to September 17) that framed the Constitution of the United States
Systems of checks and balances
it means having equally powerful branches of government that can control each others' power
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution
grants citizens the ability to directly participate in their own government by voting and running for public office
the candidate receiving the most votes is awarded the office, meant to ensure that authority cannot be concentrated in one small group of people
fair treatment through the normal judicial system, especially as a citizen's entitlement.
A formal document charging a public official with misconduct in office
College of Electors
the body of electors who formally elect president of the Untied States
A person who is employed by and acts for an organized interest group or corporation to try to influence policy decisions and positions in the executive and legislative branches.
special interest group
a group of people or an organization seeking or receiving special advantages, typically through political lobbying.
The system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map.
a cylinder of paper and wrapping it around a globe, a light is used to project the globe's features onto the paper, distortion is least where the paper touches the globe
made onto a cone paper, cuts through part of the globe in two different places, touches a globe at the base of the cone only, most often used in middle latitudes, maps of the United States
flat piece of paper, touches the globe at one point only, show the areas of the north and south poles, gnomonic projection- map all meridians appear as straight lines
great circle route
Shortest route between any two places on the planet
a person who makes maps
An original document containing the observations, ideas, and conclusions of an individual. It is a firsthand account presented by someone present or actively participating in the event. Examples include manuscripts, photographs, oral histories, and personal journals.
works written significantly after the period being studied and based upon primary sources
Earth's features onto a map they must be stretched in some way
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