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NTDT Exam 2
Terms in this set (193)
How many amino acids are there?
How many essential amino acids are there?
how are amino acids different from carbs and fat?
they contain nitrogen
how are amino acids used for energy?
1. deamination (lose nitrogen group)
2. converted from ammonia to urea in the liver
3. urea is moved to the kidneys for excretion in urine
how does excessive protein intake affect the kidneys?
the kidneys handle the workload, which increases the risk for kidney disease
key functions of protein
growth and maintenance, enzymes, hormones, fluid balance, acid-base balance, blood clotting, transporters, antibodies
ATP production: only used when other macronutrients are inadequate or protein intake is excessive
occurs when nitrogen intake and synthesis = nitrogen excretion
positive nitrogen balance
synthesis exceeds excretion
negative nitrogen balance
excretion exceeds synthesis
examples of positive nitrogen balance
pregnancy, childhood, muscle mass building
examples of negative nitrogen balance
burns and injuries, fever and other illnesses, weight loss with muscle wasting (fasting), astronauts
protein quality depends on ___
digestibility and amino acid composition
what are some high quality protein sources?
eggs, meat, fish, poultry, dairy (animal products)
quinoa and tofu (non-animal products)
RDA for protein
short term concerns with inadequate protein intake
nutrient deficiency, tissue breakdown, reduced strength, impaired brain and kidney function, increased risk of infection (poor immunity), organ dysfunction, death
long term concerns with inadequate protein intake
marasmus or kwashiorkor
Maramus (skin and bones)
Kwashiorkor (swollen bellies)
acute malnutrition with protein deficiency
AMDR for protein
AMDR for fat
AMDR for carbs
1 lb = ___ kcal
weight x 10-12
weight x 11-13
concerns with excessive protein intake
can lead to heart disease, cancer, osteoporosis, weight gain and/or obesity, increased loss of calcium in urine, extra urea load on kidneys, increased risk of kidney disease
2 types of carbohydrates
simple and complex
simple carbohydrate subgroups
glucose (blood sugar)
fructose (fruit sugar)
complex carbohydrate subgroups
glycogen: liver and muscle tissue (human stores)
starch (plant stores)
fiber (not digestible)
maltose = __ + __
glucose + glucose
sucrose = __ + __
glucose + fructose
lactose = __ + __
glucose + galactose
2 primary types of fiber
insoluble and soluble
insoluble fibers _______ transit
soluble fibers _____ transit
soluble fibers turn into ___
are insoluble fibers fermented?
are soluble fibers fermented?
both insoluble and soluble fibers promote ___
how does soluble fiber affect weight management?
it slows down the GI tract which helps you feel full longer
how does insoluble fiber affect weight management?
it promotes fullness by adding bulk to the diet
how does fiber benefit diabetes?
soluble fiber slows down GI transit, which slows down monosaccharide absorption and prevents blood sugar spikes
how does fiber benefit heart disease?
soluble fiber can bind up bile in the large intestine and prevent its reabsorption and recycling in the liver. cholesterol is pulled from the blood to assemble more bile which reduces "bad" cholesterol
how does insoluble fiber promote GI health?
it adds bulk, which prevents constipation and strengthens muscle tone in the colon
how does soluble fiber promote GI health?
it is fermented by bacteria in the colon which produces fuel for colon cells and keeps them healthy
how does fiber benefit cancer?
fiber in the colon helps to trap toxins and prevent them from being reabsorbed
fermented soluble fiber cells promote ___
foods full of fiber contain
anti-oxidants and phytochemicals
recommended intake of fiber
14 g per 1000 kcal
examples of fiber in the food group grains
multigrain bread, brown rice
examples of fiber in the food group vegetables
celery, kidney beans
examples of fiber in the food group fruits
examples of fiber in milk products
examples of fiber in protein foods
almonds, flaxseeds (NOT meat, fish, poultry)
is it possible to get too much fiber?
concerns with excessive fiber intake
GI distress - constipation and increased gas
how are monosaccharides and disaccharides absorbed?
monosaccharides don't need to be digested
disaccharides must be broken down into monosaccharides
how are monosaccharides absorbed?
stop at liver first to convert fructose and galactose to glucose then directly enter bloodstream
what type of transport do glucose and galactose use?
what type of transport does fructose use?
what happens to your blood sugar levels while you eat?
it increases after eating anything with carbs
how are blood sugars brought back to normal levels while you eat?
the pancreas is stimulated to release insulin as blood sugar levels rise
how does insulin reduce blood sugar levels?
by moving glucose into cells for energy (ATP), storing glucose as glycogen, storing glucose as fat
what happens to your blood sugar levels between meals?
how are blood sugars brought back to normal levels between meals?
the pancreas is stimulated to release glucagon
what does glucagon do?
stimulates the breakdown of glycogen
how does glucagon bring blood sugar levels back to normal?
it breaks down glycogen and releases it into the blood
indicates how quickly blood glucose rises, how high the peak is and how long until blood glucose returns to normal after you eat
is a low or high glycemic response desired?
foods with added sugar and no fiber have a very ___ glycemic response
what happens if you eat high glycemic foods like added sugars and refined grains?
it overworks your insulin system and may lead to type 2 diabetes
who is affected by type 1 diabetes?
adolescents (before puberty)
risk factors of type 1 diabetes
treatment for type 1 diabetes
who is affected by type 2 diabetes?
people older than 40
risk factors of type 2 diabetes
obesity and family history
treatment for type 2 diabetes
diet, medications, insulin
who is affected by gestational diabetes?
risk factors for gestational diabetes
treatment for gestational diabetes
where do Americans get added sugar in their diet?
beverages like soda and fruit drinks
where is most of the added sugar eaten at?
how much added sugar is considered to be maximum for good health?
no more than 10% of total kcal
how many grams of sugar should some consuming 2600 kcal per day limit themselves to?
2600 kcal x 10% = 260 kcal from added sugar
260 kcal / 4 kcal/g = 65 g of added sugar
does sugar have a direct relationship with obesity?
does sugar have a direct relationship with diabetes?
does sugar have a direct relationship with dental cavities?
does sugar have a direct relationship with behavior?
3 primary reasons that alternative sweeteners of potential benefit to health
1. reduced kcal
2. no effect on cavities (do not promote cavities like sugar)
3. no effect on blood glucose (suitable for people with diabetes)
what is aspartame made of?
genetic disease in which you are unable to break down the amino acid phenylalanine
what is Splenda made of?
sucrose + chlorine
what is the sweetness of aspartame?
what is the sweetness of Splenda?
can aspartame be used in cooking?
can Splenda be used in cooking?
example of catabolism
breaking down storage glycogen into glucose to feed the brain
example of anabolism
building new muscle tissue from amino acid and protein building blocks
3 types of energy storage in the body
ATP, glycogen, fat
how long does ATP last in energy storage?
very short, seconds to minutes
how long does glycogen last in energy storage?
how long does fat last in energy storage?
long term storage (could be years)
what happens during periods of excess energy intake?
any additional amino acids, glucose or fatty acids that are not needed for energy metabolism are converted into stores
glucose is first stored as ___, but once its full, its converted to fat
if not needed for muscle or tissue repair, amino acids are converted to ___ and stored in ____tissue
fat is stored as ___
what happens during periods of inadequate energy intake?
does alcohol get digested?
how does alcohol get absorbed?
starts with rapid absorption in the stomach, then preferential absorption in the small intestine that travels in the blood for metabolism in the liver
how is alcohol used for energy metabolism?
it must be broken down to acetyl CoA bu the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (with the help of niacin) then the usual steps of metabolism (TCA,ETC) apply
where is the main site for alcohol metabolism?
what happens to alcohol if it is not used for energy production?
it is converted to fat for storage in adipose tissue
what are the stages of liver damage?
1. fatty liver
4. liver failure
what organ sustains the most damage from excessive alcohol intake?
the liver is responsible for ___% of alcohol metabolism
the liver prefers _______ for energy metabolism, but if ______ is present, it gets used first
fatty acids, alcohol
describe the fatty liver stage
fat accumulates after just 1 night of heavy drinking
is fatty liver reversible?
yes, with moderation
describe the fibrosis stage
fatty liver starts to form scar tissue and alter liver function
is fibrosis reversible?
yes, with moderation
describe the cirrhosis stage
scar tissue hardens into nodules, which affects liver blood flow and function
is cirrhosis reversible?
is cirrhosis treatable?
yes, with moderation, special diet and medications
how is liver failure treated?
only with transplant
short term consequences of heavy drinking
dehydration, fat accumulation in the liver, kills liver and brain cells, risky behaviors
long term consequences of heavy drinking
central obesity, malnutrition, increased risk of cancer, dementia, digestive disorders
3 components of energy expenditure
basal metabolic rate, physical activity and voluntary movement, thermic effect of food
proportion of daily energy expenditure for basal metabolic rate
proportion of daily energy expenditure for physical activity and voluntary movement
proportion of daily energy expenditure for thermic effect of food
factors that affect basal metabolic rate
age, gender, body size (weight, height), body composition (muscle vs. body fat), genetics, thyroid function, health (illness, fever), ambient temperature and climate, growth status, fasting or starvation
how does physical activity affect energy expenditure?
short term physical activity burns calories and increases energy output for several hours afterwards
how does physical activity affect BMR?
long term physical activity changes your body composition; reducing body fat and increasing lean mass
being more active long term increases your ___
who burns more mass sleeping at night, a leaner and more muscular person or a similar sized person with higher body fat?
a leaner and more muscular person
how do you calculate BMI?
weight (kg) / height (m^2)
which 4 groups is BMI inaccurate and inappropriate to use on?
athletes, children, elderly, pregnant and lactating women
why is body fat essential?
for the proper functioning of your immune system, CNS and for padding/insulation
what is the minimum level of body fat for women?
what is the minimum level of body fat for men?
consequences of low body fat levels
infertility, hormone disruption, bone loss, difficulty with thermoregulation, reduced BMR
underweight BMI range
healthy weight BMI range
overweight BMI range
obese BMI range
extreme obesity BMI range
2 primary fat distribution patterns
apple and pear
apple fat distribution
chest and stomach area; visceral or abdominal fat
pear fat distribution
hips, thighs, butt; subcutaneous fat
which fat distribution pattern is worse for your health?
apple = visceral, abdominal obesity
quickest and cheapest way to assess body fat distribution
high risk waist circumference for men
high risk waist circumference for women
most prevalent eating disorder
least prevalent eating disorder
unknown prevalent eating disorder
very low body weight and body fat, restrictive eating and/or excessive physical activity, preoccupation with weight loss despite low weight, body dysmorphia, amenorrhea
____ must be a symptom in order to be diagnosed with anorexia
bingeing followed by purging, usually healthy body weight or overweight, calloused knuckles, tooth decay and esophageal bleeding can occur
excessive overeating without subsequent purging, typically overweight or obese though not always associated with weight
criteria for bariatric surgery without any chronic health conditions
criteria for bariatric surgery with one or more chronic health conditions
2 types of bariatric surgery
gastric banding and gastric bypass
reduces size of stomach with band, adjustable, reversible, less invasive
reduced size of stomach by bypass 80% of stomach, more invasive, higher complication risk
which bariatric surgery is more successful?
which bariatric surgery changes anatomy of stomach?
most important component of successful weight maintenance
physical activity - changes body composition for the better
dietary change successful strategies for weight loss
portion control, focus on nutrient density, increase water intake, increase fiber intake, limit/reduce alcohol intake, balance of macronutrients, reduced carb intake (refined grains and added sugars), recognize satiety
physical activity successful strategies for weight loss
increased energy expenditure, body composition changes with consistent exercise, higher metabolic rate, improved appetite response, ore flexible discretionary kcalories
other influences successful strategies for weight loss
social support, minimize distractions such as screen time, focus on increase self-efficacy (confidence) with small achievable goals, try self-monitoring such as food records to increase awareness of habits
are over-the-counter diet pills effective?
are over-the-counter diet pills safe?
they are not monitored by the FDA, manufacturers do not have to guarantee effectiveness or safety before pills enter marketplace
you cannot make glucose from ___ but you can make it from ____ (amino acids)
After glycogen stores are depleted, your body no longer has easy supply _____
body breaks down muscle tissue for amino acids to be converted to glucose during very low _____ diets or ____
the brain, red blood cells, or nerve cells cannot use ___ as energy
body turns on _____ to spare muscle tissue from being depleted
fats can be converted into ketones, which the ____ will accept in lieu of glucose
when the brain uses ketones, what is in less demand?
muscle break down for glucose, except for nerve and red blood cells
are there any benefits of fasting/very low kcal diets?
are there any cons of fasting/very low kcal diets?
weight regain, only lose water weight, disorder patterns
are there any benefits of low carb diets?
limiting carbs; don't need excessive amount but can't cut them out of diet
are there any cons of low carb diets?
weight regain, only lose water weight initially
are there any benefits of meal delivery diets?
easy, portion control built into program
are there any cons of meal delivery diets?
processed foods, not learning cooking skills to keep up changes, expensive
are there any benefits of the paleo diet?
reduced processed foods, diet rich in fruits and vegetables
are there any cons of the paleo diet?
cut out whole food groups
are there any benefits of the weight watchers diet?
self-monitoring with points system and weekly weighing, social support, preparing and eating real food
are there any cons of the weight watchers diet?
expensive for some
a series of diets followed by eventual weight gain
why is yo-yo dieting not ideal?
end up heavier after weight cycling, including lower muscle mass and more body fat; increases risk of diabetes, has negative effects on self esteem
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