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103 terms

Pyschology 110 Review for Final

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When groups of psychologists or other professionals look over a proposed research study and judge it according to its safety and consideration for the participants in the study, they are interested in the _________________ of the study?
ethics
In the definition of psychology, behavior means
outward or overt actions and reactions
What early perspective in psychology focused on how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work and play?
Functionalism
The ________________ is part of the brain that regulates the amount of fear, thirst, sexual drive, and aggression that we feel.
hypothalamus
Heroin addiction leads the body to produce too little or none of this neurotransmitter, resulting in a lack of protection against pain for the individua
Endorphins
The left hemisphere of the brain controls the left hand, written language, and mathematical calculations. True/False
False
The first known neurotransmitter was ______________, which stimulates muscles and helps in memory formation.
Acetylcholine
Who is considered the first individual to attempt to apply scientific principles to the study of the human mind?
Wilhelm Wundt
Damage to the _____________ lobe may result in a person experiencing problems performing mental tasks, getting stuck on one step or one wrong answer and repeating it over and over again.
Occipital Lobe
Psychology is defined as ________________.
The study of behavior and mental processes
The dependent variable is the variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter. True/False
False
The entire group of people or animals in which a researcher is interested is known as a __________________ ?
population
If a researcher finds a positive correlation between two variables, she can conclude that one variable CAUSES another. True/False
False
This term is used to describe systems of explaining human behavior that are not based on or consistent with scientific evidence and includes astrology, palmistry and graphology.
Pseudopsychology
What type of psychological professional has a medical degree and specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders?
Psychiatrist
The experimental group is the group of subjects in an experiment who are not subjected to the independent variable and who may receive a placebo treatment. True/False
False
In psychology, there are four goals that aim to uncover the mysteries of human and animal behavior: description, explanation, prediction, and control. True/False
True
Antagonists are chemical substances that block or reduce a cell's response to the action of other chemicals or neurotransmitters. True/False
True
The ___________ nervous system is composed of the brain and the spinal cord.
central
What are the 6 steps to the scientific method?
Perceiving the Question, Forming a Hypothesis, Testing the Hypothesis, Drawing Conclusions and Reporting Results
Which neurotransmitter is associated with the control of movement and sensation of pleasure and is linked to Parkinson's Disease and schizophrenia?
Dopamine
The ____________ perspective focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning.
cognitive
Which brain-imaging method utilizes radioactive sugar to compile a color-coded image of the activity of the brain with lighter colors indicating more activity?
Positron Emission Tomography
The place theory and the frequency theory help to explain ______________.
how a wide range of frequencies is heard by the ear
The Young-Helmholtz theory of color vision assumes that:
there are three different types of cones.
The key to hypnotic induction seems to be related to _________________
state of suggestibility
A spook house at a local carnival offered its potential patrons free admission if they would allow themselves to be blindfolded and then to eat raw worms. Although the were actually fed cold spaghetti, most of the customers believed they were swallowing real worms. What is the MOST plausible explanation for this finding?
Food flavor is really a composite of taste, smell, sight, and texture
REM rebound is a sleep disorder. True/False
False
Weber's Law states that a just noticeable difference change in a stimulus magnitude is __________ the original stimulus magnitude.
proportional to
Our awareness of various mental processes, such as making decisions, daydreaming, reflecting, and concentrating, is called
consciousness
Heroin addiction has been treated with
methadone
According to this theory, sleep is necessary for growth and repair of the body.
restorative theory
While riding on a train, Joan notices that the trees and telephone poles close to the tracks seem to flash by, while the buildings, trees, and mountains that are farther away seem to move by more slowly. This phenomenon is called
motion parallax
The distance cue in which objects at greater distances appear to be smoother is
texture gradient
A client tells his therapist about a dream of riding on a train with his boss. At the end of the journey, the boss gets off the train at the terminal. The content of the dream, as related by the client to the therapist, is what Freud called its
manifest content
Which of the following neurotransmitters are associated with alcohol?
GABA
The point at which a person can detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time it is presented is called the
absolute threshold
You are told you are going to be shown some words related to food. The experimenter then shows you the word "pizao" and you perceive the word "pizza." This shows that your perceptions are affected by your
expectations
The hammer, anvil, and stirrup are the
three tiny bones in the middle ear.
Our tendency to see objects as relatively stable and unchanging despite changing sensory information is called perceptual
constancy
Jason entered a dark movie theater from the bright sunlight. Which of the following was occurring in his retinal system?
a slow shift from cone vision to rod vision
The smallest change in stimulation that can be detected 50 percent of the time is called the ________ threshold.
difference
The process whereby we receive information from the environment through our receptors is
sensation
Morphine and heroin duplicate the action of
endorphins
Melatonin is a
hormone
This early researcher did a study that seemed to suggest that people deprived of REM sleep would become paranoid, seemingly mentally ill, from lack of this one stage of sleep.
Dement
A student nurse looks at a patient's chart and does not understand the meaning of serious sleep apnea, so she asks the head nurse for assistance. How might the head nurse describe this condition?
The patient has a potentially life-threatening condition in which air does not flow into or out of his nose or mouth for periods of time while he is asleep.
Your friend has experienced excessive daytime sleepiness. He is laughing with you and suddenly falls to the ground. Your friend is probably suffering from
narcolepsy
To treat your sleep problem you are told that you should not nap, you should set your alarm clock to wake up at the same time each day, and you should get out of bed if you cannot sleep. What sleep disorder have you been experiencing?
insomnia
Taste buds are contained in the tongue's
papillae
Which of the following is a characteristic of both light waves and sound waves?
wavelength
Learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful was called _________ by Tolman.
latent learning
In a ____________ schedule of reinforcement, the number or responses required to receive each reinforcer will always be the same number
fixed ratio
In classical conditioning, the actual response involved in a CR and a UCR are the same. (For example, it might be salivation in both cases). But what makes that response (salivation) considered conditioned or unconditioned depends on:
whether the organism is responding to an UCS or a CS
When Mike goes to a Cardinal's baseball game, his mouth waters at the sight of hot dogs. However, when Mike goes to the grocery store, his mouth doesn't water. This response is likely due to ___________.
discrimination
Reacting to a stimulus that is similar to the one you have learned to react to is called ____________.
stimulus generalization
Rachel has found that when she opens the cupboard door to get the cat food, the cats come running to the kitchen. Rachel knows that this is classical conditioning and that the conditioned stimulus is the ____________.
cupboard door opening
_______________ is a relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by practice or experience.
Learning
A child is praised for using his fork instead of his fingers to eat some spaghetti. This is an example of ____________ reinforcement.
positive
The fact that a reward will increase the future likelihood of a response that produces it is known as ____________.
the Law of Effect
A conditioned stimulus becomes able to produce a learned response if it is ________ the original unconditioned stimulus.
paired with
A researcher who studies a fixed group of people over a long period of time is, by definition, using the _________ method.
longitudinal
Sternberg has found that ________ intelligence is a good predictor of success in life but has a low relationship to ________ intelligence.
practical; analytical
Cognition is a synonym for ________.
thinking
In one study, a little more than half of the elderly people surveyed reported being _____ as when they were younger.
just as happy
Sally knows that the Saint Bernard is a large dog instead of a little pony. This is an example of what Piaget called __________.
accommodation
A psychologist observes a group of nine-year-olds and a group of thirteen-year-olds during recess at school in order to assess changes in play group preferences of boys and girls between these two ages. This researcher's study uses a
cross-sectional design
In problem solving, the term rule of thumb refers to __________.
heuristics
What term do psychologists use to describe our tendency to search for evidence that supports our belief and to ignore evidence that might disprove it?
confirmation bias
The belief that one is the center of the world is called __________, by Piaget.
egocentrism
What is the system of process by which the products or results of learning are stored for future use?
memory
Traits which are typical of a sex but not directly concerned with reproduction are called __________.
secondary sexual characteristics
Information in short-term memory is retained _______.
as long as it is rehearsed
A recognition test requires one to:
pick the correct answer from among several possible ones provided.
The sensory memory associated with the visual sense is called the:
iconic memory system
You looked up a friend's e-mail address for an email you wrote. Suddenly the phone rings--wrong number. Even though you were interrupted for only a few seconds, you've forgotten the address. Which memory system failed you?
short-term memory
According to Piaget, which of the following is crucial to cognitive development at the sensory-motor stage?
object permanence
Which of the following questions would be more likely to produce divergent thinking?
How many uses can you think of for a stapler?
Randy is recovering from an automobile accident in which he injured his head. The only noticeable psychological symptom of his injury is that he cannot remember what happened immediately prior to the accident. Randy's symptoms are typical of _______.
retrograde amnesia
A typical statement of someone in the ________ level of Kohlberg's moral development would be, "I'm not going to steal because I'll probably be punished if I do."
preconventional
Unprocessed stimulation from the environment is first held in:
sensory memory.
What percent of the population has an intelligence quotient below 100?
50%
A psychological test that measures what we intend it to measure is said to be _______.
valid
Psychological tests that yield relatively consistent results are said to be _________.
reliable
If intelligence is determined primarily by heredity, which pair should show the highest correlation between IQ scores?
identical twins
As children approach their teen years, contact with __________ becomes more important in their development.
peers
The system of rules that governs how we assign meaning to the morphemes we us is called ____________.
semantics
Erik is a newborn. According to Erikson, his main task will be to develop a sense of ______
trust
In order to make the transition from dependence on parents to dependence on one's self, the adolescent must develop a stable sense of _________
identity
What number relfects the amount of differences in a population attributable to genetic influences?
heritability
John, a 43-year-old father dying of cancer, makes frequent nasty remarks to his partner such as, "You can't wait until I die so you can get the insurance money and live it up, can you?" This illustrates which of Kubler-Ross' stages?
anger
An individual's semantic memory contains:
background knowledge about words, symbols, concepts, and rules arranged as hierarchies of information in categories and subordinate categories
The theory of multiple intelligences was proposed by __________.
Gardner
Jordan is a 10-year-old boy who has a mental age of 8 years. His IQ would be _____.
80
The passing of time causes forgetting according to __________
decay theory
The field of ______ focuses on the questions of how people of different ages differ from one another and what caused those differences.
developmental psychology
Tim is studying for a test. After seven consecutive hours of studying, he finds he can remember what he just finished studying, but he can no longer remember what he studied five or six hours ago. Tim's memory problems are BEST explained by _________.
retroactive interference
A disorder common in late adulthood that is characterized by losses in memory and cognition, and changes in personality, and that is believed to be caused by deterioration of the brain's structure and function is ___________.
Alzheimer's disease
Which of the following is a desirable characteristic of culture-fair tests?
They should minimize or eliminate the use of language.
The process we use to notice important stimuli and ignore irrelevant ones is _______.
attention
Erikson's intimacy vs. isolation crisis would most likely be associated with which event in the family cycle?
marrying
The auditory equivalent of the icon is the __________.
echo
The tendency of teenagers to feel that they are always "on stage"and that they are the center of everyone else's world, just as they are the center of their own, is a phenomenon known as ________.
the imaginary audience