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the axial skeleton contains:

the skull, verterbral column, and rib cage

the body or centrum of the thoracic vertebrae are:

heart shaped

the major function of the axial skeleton is to:

provide central support for the body and protext internal organs.

the following is not a structure found on the ischium

superior ramus

which muscle cells have the greatest ability to regenerate?



holds a reserve supply of oxygen in muscle cells

which of the following are composed of myosin?

thick filaments

the contractile units of skeletal muscles are:


when a muscle is unable to respond to stimuli temporarily, it is in which of the following periods?

refractory period

smooth muscle is characterized by all of the following except:

there are more thick filaments than thin filaments.

immediately following the arrival of the stimulus at a skeletal muscle cell there is a short period called the _______ period during which the events of excitation-contraction coupling occur.


the oxygen-binding protein found in muscle cells is:


athletes sometimes complain of oxygen debt, a condition that results when insufficient oxygen is available to completely break down pyruvic acid. As a result, the pyruvic acid is converted to:

lactic acid

the most distinguishing characteristic of muscle tissue is:

the abiblity to transform chemical energy into mechanical energy

which of the following structures is not part of the external ear?

auditory tube

there are three layers of neurons in the retina. the axons of which of these neuron layers from the optic nerves?

ganglioin cells

choose the most accurate statement about sound

a ten-decibel increase represents a tenfold increase in sound intensity.

dark adaptation:

involves accumulation of rhodopsin

the blind spot of the eye is:

where the optic nerve leaves the eye

which of the following is not a characteristic of olfactory receptor cells?

they are unipolar neurons

which of the following is true about photoreceptors?

rods absorb light throughout the visual spectrum but confer only gray tone vision

light passes through the following structures in which order?

cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor

which blood type is called the universal donor?


when neither anti-A nor anti-B clots on a blood plate, the blood is type:


which of these is not a normal plasma protein?


which of the following are not currently known red blood cell antigens?



stick to the damaged area of a blood vessel and help seal the break

which of the following glands are responsible for 60% of the synthesis of semen?

the seminal vesicles

the corpus luteum is:

the ruptured follicle following the ejection of an oocyte from the ovary

the constancy of the chromosome number from one cell generation to the next is maintained through:


in humans, separation of the cells at the two-cell state following fertilization may lead to the production of twins, which in this case would be:


secretion of progesterone stimulates:

preparation of the mammary glands for lactation

select the correct statement about male sexual response:

ejection is the result of vascular spaces in the rectile tissues filling with blood.

select the correct statement about the uterine cycle.

if fertilization occurs, the corpus leutum is maintained by a hormone secreted by the developing embryo

the basic difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis is that

in oogenesis, one mature ovum is produced, and in spermatogenesis four mature sperms are produced from the parent cell


involves a kind of cell division limited to the gametes

which of the following is a correct statement about uterine tubes?

the infundibulum is the funnel-shaped region near the ovary

a boy who has not passed through puberty sustains an injury to his anterior pituitary such that PSH is no longer released, but LH is normal. After he grows to maturity, one would expect that he would:

be sterile

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