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diet and nutrition midterm
Terms in this set (86)
Which of the following chronic diseases is NOT strongly associated with dietary choices?
What are the two groups that vitamins are classified into?
fat-soluble and water-soluble
How many classes of nutrients are there?
What is the primary source of fuel for the brain?
Jane consumed a breakfast that contained 85 grams of carbohydrate, 20 grams of protein, and 18 grams of fat. How many kilocalories did Jane eat at breakfast?
Which of the following are examples of carbohydrate-rich foods?
wheat and lentils
Which of the following nutrients is the MOST energy dense?
Which of the following BEST describes minerals?
inorganic micronutrients found in a variety of foods
An important source of energy for muscles during times of rest and low-intensity exercise is
The building blocks of proteins are called
The four characteristics of a healthful diet are adequacy, balance, moderation, and
Julie does not care for meat and poultry and restricts her intake of animal foods to only milk and yogurt sources. Which dietary guideline is Julie failing to practice?
Which of the following is an ounce-equivalent serving from the USDA Food Patterns?
two small pancakes
Which of the following foods is exempt from standard food labeling regulations?
The information provided on a food label that identifies how much a serving of food contributes to your intake of nutrients based on 2,000 Calories a day is called the
Percent Daily Values
Which of the following is NOT required on a food label?
taste of the food
Which of the following is NOT included in the net contents label of a packaged food?
number of servings
According to the USDA Food Patterns, which of the following foods is NOT a food that is considered to have empty Calories?
To maintain a healthful weight, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends
increasing the level of physical activity and reducing sedentary activities.
Which of the following groups should limit daily sodium intake to no more than 1,500 mg?
people over age 50
Which hormones are responsible for maintaining blood glucose levels?
glucagon and insulin
Cell membranes are primarily composed of
The "powerhouse" of the cell that produces most of the energy molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is/are the
When the stomach is full, it can expand to hold approximately
1 gallon of food or water
The chemical environment of the stomach is
Bob eats his breakfast, and his GI tract will now begin the process of digesting and absorbing the nutrients from this meal. What is the order in which each of the organs of the GI tract will work to achieve this process?
mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
Appetite is triggered by
environmental cues, such as the smell or taste of food.
Which physiological trigger(s) will result in the sensation of hunger?
low glucose levels
Which type of cells form the lining of the intestine?
The smallest units of matter that normally CANNOT be broken down are
Which of the following carbohydrates is an end product of photosynthesis?
In the body, the major storage sites for glycogen are the muscles and
Which of the following enzymes is found in the
A technique employed by some endurance athletes to increase their storage of muscle glycogen is
Insulin is synthesized and released by the
After a meal, which hormone is responsible for moving glucose into the body's cells?
Which of the following is NOT a symptom/side effect of ketosis?
high blood cholesterol
A disaccharide is formed by the chemical bonding of
When fructose and glucose are bonded together, they form
The storage form of glucose in animals is
Which of the following describes lipids?
organic nutrients that are insoluble in water
Which of the following is a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids?
The process of adding hydrogen to an unsaturated fatty acid and creating a more solid fat is called
Which of the following statements is TRUE about trans fatty acids?
They are created during the hydrogenation process.
A key component(s) of a cell's membrane is/are
Which of the following organs does NOT assist in the digestion of lipids?
To facilitate the digestion of dietary fats, the gallbladder stores and releases a substance known as
How many Calories does 25 grams of fat provide?
What is the primary form of fat in the diet?
Which of the following fatty acids is generally solid at room temperature?
What element makes protein different from carbohydrate and fat
The process of transferring the amine group from one amino acid to another is called
The process through which messenger RNA (mRNA) copies genetic information from DNA and carries it to the ribosome is called
Which of the following is a type of protein that is stored in a gland and secreted to an organ to restore the body to normal conditions?
What dictates the structure of a protein molecule synthesized by the body?
the DNA inside the nucleus of the cell
Conduction of nerve signals and contraction of muscles depends on the proper balance of
Significant chemical digestion of protein begins in the
Which part of an individual amino acid distinguishes it from other amino acids?
A polypeptide consist of how many strings of amino acids?
ten or more
A complete protein
contains all 9 essential amino acids
Up to what percentage of an adult's healthy body weight is fluid?
The ability of a muscle to contract and relax is dependent on the flow of what substance in and out of the muscle cell?
The "command center" of fluid intake is located in the
Diets rich in which of the following nutrients are associated with maintaining healthy blood pressure levels?
The majority of our body's phosphorus is stored in the
On average, which of the following individuals would have the highest percentage of body water?
35-year-old lean man
The movement of water through a semipermeable membrane toward solutes is called
Water functions as an excellent solvent, which means that
most solutes (particles) will dissolve in water.
Which of the following statements about the movement of substances through the cell membrane is TRUE?
Water freely moves across cell membranes
What is the primary reason we sweat?
to regulate body temperature
The smallest physical units of a substance are
Which water-soluble vitamin can regenerate vitamin E after it has been oxidized?
Which of the following is NOT a function of vitamin E?
improving the absorption of vitamin C if dietary intake is low
The inactive forms of vitamins found in the body that must be converted to their active forms before they can be used are known as
The deficiency disease associated with vitamin C is
In an atom, the electrons orbiting around the nucleus have what kind of a charge?
To what does Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAE) refer?
how much vitamin A is available after it has been converted from beta-carotene
Diseases that cause the malabsorption of fat can result in a deficiency of
A chemical reaction in which atoms lose electrons is
How do antioxidant minerals stabilize free radicals?
break down oxidized fatty acids
inorganic substances required for body processes
A healthy diet is
adequate, moderate, balanced, nutrient dense varied.
Most chemical digestion occurs in the
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