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261 terms

Networking Final

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Which statement describes an advantage of networks?
Networks enable multiple users to share resources.
A ____ facilitates communication and resource sharing between other computers on the network.
server
____ networks are the most popular type of network for medium- and large-scale organizations.
Client/server
A ____ network is confined to a relatively small space.
LAN
A ____ network connects clients and servers from multiple buildings.
MAN
A ____ is a specialized device that allows multiple networks or multiple parts of one network to connect and exchange data.
connectivity device
____ are the distinct units of data that are exchanged between nodes on a network.
Data Packets
____ services refer to the capability of a server to share data files, applications, and disk storage space.
File
____ services allow remote users to connect to the network.
Access
____ provide a Web-based client for checking e-mail.
Mail Servers
Security auditing is handled by ____.
management services
Standards define the ____ performance of a product or service.
minimum acceptable
The goal of ____ is to establish international technological standards to facilitate the global exchange of information and barrier free trade.
ISO
The ____ is a specialized United Nations agency that provides developing countries with technical expertise and equipment to advance those nations' technological bases.
ITU
____ oversees the IAB (Internet Architecture Board).
ISOC
Which statement accurately describes the OSI model?
It describes a theoretical representation of what happens between two nodes communicating on a network
Which OSI model layer initiates the flow of information?
Application
In which OSI model layer does TCP operate?
Transport
Which type of protocol is useful when data must be transferred quickly?
connectionless
Transport layer protocols break large data units into ____.
segments
Each network node has ____ types of addresses.
two
The process of determining the best path from Point A on one network to Point B on another is known as ____.
routing
In which OSI model layer does IP operate?
Network
Which Data Link sublayer manages flow control?
LLC
Which Data Link sublayer manages access to the physical medium?
MAC
The ____ is a fixed number associated with a device's NIC.
physical address
In which OSI model layer do hubs operate?
Physical
In which OSI model layer(s) do NICs operate?
Physical and Data Link
Which IEEE standard describes Ethernet?
802.3
Which IEEE standard describes specifications for wireless transmissions?
802.11
____________________ are documented agreements containing technical specifications or other precise criteria that stipulate how a particular product or service should be designed or performed.
Standards
____________________ protocols establish a connection with another node before they begin transmitting data.
Connection Oriented
The distance between corresponding points on a wave's cycle is called its ____.
wavelength
A digital signal composed of a pulse of positive voltage represents a ____.
1
The byte 00001110 means ____ on a digital network.
14
In modulation, a simple wave called a ____ wave, is combined with another analog signal to produce a unique signal that gets transmitted from one node to another.
carrier
When signals are free to travel in both directions over a medium simultaneously, the transmission is considered ____.
full-duplex
____ is a technology used with fiber-optic cable, which enables one fiber-optic connection to carry multiple light signals simultaneously.
WDM (wavelength division multiplexing)
The data transmission characteristic most frequently discussed and analyzed by networking professionals is ____.
throughput
One of the most common transmission flaws affecting data signals is ____.
noise
The most significant factor in choosing a transmission method is its ____.
throughput
The more twists per foot in a pair of wires, the more resistant the pair will be to ____.
cross talk
Modern LANs use ____ or higher wiring.
Cat 5
Serial refers to a style of data transmission in which the pulses that represent bits follow one another along a ____ transmission line.
single
____ describes a popular serial data transmission method.
EIA/TIA RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232)
Which connector is used in RS-232 transmissions?
DB-25
In a ____ cable, the usual wire positions are exactly reversed in one of the two RJ-45 terminations.
rollover
Which term describes the hardware that makes up the enterprise-wide cabling system?
cable plant
Which standard is also known as structured cabling?
TIA/EIA Commercial Building Wiring Standard
The points where circuits interconnect with other circuits is known as ____.
cross-connect facilities
Which term identifies a room containing connectivity for groups of workstations in its area?
telecommunications closet
____ describes wiring that connects workstations to the closest telecommunications closet.
Horizontal wiring
Many network problems can be traced to poor cable ____ techniques.
installation
The use of 1s and 0s to represent information is characteristic of a(n) ____________________ system.
binary
____________________ is a term used by networking professionals to describe the nondata information that must accompany data for a signal to be properly routed and interpreted by the network.
Overhead
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) reports on the success or failure of data delivery.
Point-to-multipoint
If a device does not know its own IP address, it can still use ARP.
Connectors
TCP is a(n) ____ subprotocol.
connection-oriented
A(n) ____ number is the address on a host where an application makes itself available to incoming or outgoing data.
port
____ is more efficient than TCP for carrying messages that fit within one data packet.
UDP
A UDP header contains ____ fields.
four
The subprotocol that enables TCP/IP to internetwork - that is, to traverse more than one LAN segment and more than one type of network through a router is ____.
IP
____ operates at the Network layer and manages multicasting.
IGMP
In the TCP/IP protocol suite, ____ is the core protocol responsible for logical addressing.
IP
In IPv4 addressing, each IP address is a unique ____ number.
32-bit
In IPv4 addressing, an IP address whose first octet is in the range of 192-223 belongs to a Class ____ network.
C
In IPv4 addressing, a node with an IP address of 168.34.88.29 belongs to a Class ____ network.
B
In dotted decimal notation, a(n) ____ separates each decimal.
period
The default subnet mask for a Class B network is ____.
255.255.0.0
In most cases, BOOTP has been surpassed by the more sophisticated IP addressing utility, ____.
DHCP
A(n) ____ address represents any one interface from a group of interfaces, any one of which can accept a transmission.
anycast
In IPv6, each address contains a(n) ____, or a variable-length field at the beginning of the address that indicates what type of address it is.
Format Prefix
If the standard port number for the Telnet service is 23, a host whose IPv4 address is 10.43.3.87 has a socket address for Telnet of ____.
10.43.3.87:23
In the domain name www.google.com, ____ is the top-level domain (TLD).
com
____ is a terminal emulation protocol used to log on to remote hosts using the TCP/IP protocol suite.
Telnet
____ is a simple Application layer protocol used to synchronize the clocks of computers on a network.
NTP
____ is a utility that can verify that TCP/IP is installed, bound to the NIC, configured correctly, and communicating with the network.
PING
Protocols that can span more than one LAN (or LAN segment) are ____________________, because they carry Network layer addressing information that can be interpreted by a router.
routable
A physical topology ____.
depicts a network in broad scope
Without ____, a bus network would suffer from signal bounce.
terminators
In a ring network, each workstation acts as a(n) ____ for the transmission.
repeater
A complex combination of pure topologies is known as a ____ topology.
hybrid
The most common logical topologies are ____ and ring.
bus
A ____ is simply a linked series of devices.
daisy-chain
In packet switching, when packets reach their destination node, the node ____ them based on their control information.
reassembles
Collectively, MPLS labels are sometimes called a ____.
shim
All Ethernet networks, independent of their speed or frame type, use an access method called ____.
CSMA/CD
A ____ occurs when two transmissions interfere with each other.
collision
On an Ethernet network, a(n) ____ is the portion of a network in which collisions occur if two nodes transmit data at the same time.
collision domain
1000Base-T is a standard for achieving throughputs ____ times faster than Fast Ethernet over copper cable.
10
The 10GBase-T standard is considered a breakthrough for transmitting 10 Gbps over ____ medium.
twisted pair
The most common 1-Gigabit Ethernet standard in use today is ____.
1000Base-LX
The 10-gigabit fiber optic standard with the shortest segment length is ____.
10GBase-SR
In the 10GBase-LR standard, the L stands for ____.
long reach
Given their long-distance capabilities, 10GBase-ER and 10GBase-EW are best suited for use on ____.
WANs
Within Ethernet frame types, the ____ signals to the receiving node that data is incoming and indicates when the data flow is about to begin.
preamble
The data portion of an Ethernet frame may contain ____ bytes of information.
46 to 1500
The Ethernet_II frame type contains a 2-byte ____ field which differentiates it from the older Ethernet_802.3 and Ethernet_802.2 frame types.
type
In a(n) ____________________ topology, every node on the network is connected through a central device, such as a hub, router, or switch.
star
A network backbone is the ____________________ that connects the hubs, switches, and routers on a network.
cabling
____________________ is a component of a network's logical topology that determines how connections are created between nodes.
Switching
As part of CSMA/CD, a process known as ____________________ allows the NIC issue a special 32-bit sequence that indicates to the rest of the network nodes that its previous transmission was faulty and that those data frames are invalid.
jamming
Nearly all NICs contain a(n) ____, the device that transmits and receives data signals.
data transceiver
By far, the most popular expansion board NIC is one that uses a(n) ____ bus.
PCI
PCIe slots vary depending on the number of ____ they support.
lanes
CompactFlash is an example of a peripheral device attached to the computer's ____ bus.
external
The primary difference between the two USB standards is ____.
speed
____ is a set of data or instructions that has been saved to a ROM (read-only memory) chip (which is on the NIC).
Firmware
Each time a computer starts up, the device drivers for all its connected peripherals are loaded into ____.
RAM
If the ____ NIC LED indicator is blinking, the NIC is functioning and receiving frames.
RX
A(n) ____ is the circuit board wire over which a device issues voltage to signal this request.
interrupt
____ is a type of microchip that requires very little energy to operate.
CMOS
The ____ is a simple set of instructions that enables a computer to initially recognize its hardware.
BIOS
The ____ setting specifies, in hexadecimal notation, which area of memory will act as a channel for moving data between the NIC and the CPU.
base I/O port
A NIC's transmission characteristics are held in the adapter's ____.
firmware
A ____ is a repeater with more than one output port.
hub
____ hubs possess internal processing capabilities.
Intelligent
Switches can create ____ by grouping a number of ports into a broadcast domain.
VLANs
To eliminate the possibility of a broadcast storm, switches and bridges implement the ____.
STP (Spanning Tree Protocol)
Switches that operate anywhere between Layer 4 and Layer 7 are also known as ____ switches.
content
A ____ is a multiport connectivity device that directs data between nodes on a network.
router
____ routing is a technique in which a network administrator programs a router to use specific paths between nodes.
Static
____ are combinations of networking hardware and software that connect two dissimilar kinds of networks.
Gateways
A computer's ____________________ is the circuit, or signaling pathway, used by the motherboard to transmit data to the computer's components, including its memory, processor, hard disk, and NIC.
bus
A(n) ____________________ NIC is integrated into the motherboard.
on-board
A(n) ____________________ is software that enables an attached device to communicate with the computer's operating system.
device driver
WANs typically send data over ____ available communications networks.
publicly
The individual geographic locations connected by a WAN are known as ____.
WAN sites
Because WAN connections require routers or other Layer 3 devices to connect locations, their links are not capable of carrying ____ protocols.
nonroutable
On most modern WANs, a ring topology relies on ____ rings to carry data.
redundant
The portion of the PSTN that connects any residence or business to the nearest CO is known as the ____.
local loop
A PSTN offers ____ security.
marginal
____ is an updated, digital version of X.25 that also relies on packet switching.
Frame relay
In a process called ____, two 64-Kbps ISDN B channels can be combined to achieve an effective throughput of 128 Kbps.
bonding
A ____ converts digital signals into analog signals for use with ISDN phones and other analog devices.
terminal adapter
ISDN PRI uses ____ B channels and one 64-Kbps D channel.
23
The speed of a T-carrier depends on its ____ level.
signal
At the customer's demarcation point, either inside or outside the building, T-carrier wire pairs terminate with a ____.
smart jack
A ____ aggregates multiple DSL subscriber lines and connects them to the carrier's CO.
DSLAM
Broadband cable requires many subscribers to share the same local line, thus raising concerns about ____ and actual (versus theoretical) throughput.
security
What sets ATM apart from Ethernet is its ____ size.
fixed packet
SONET's extraordinary ____ results from its use of a double-ring topology over fiber-optic cable.
fault tolerance
The data rate of a particular SONET ring is indicated by its ____, a rating that is internationally recognized by networking professionals and standards organizations.
OC (Optical Carrier) level
____ networking refers to dialing directly into a private network's or ISP's remote access server to log on to a network.
Dial-up
____ is the preferred communications protocol for remote access communications.
PPP
____ is the standard for connecting home computers to an ISP via DSL or broadband cable.
PPoE
____ virtual computing allows a user on one computer, called the client, to control another computer, called the host or server, across a network connection.
Remote
In wireless communication, to exchange information, two antennas must be tuned to the same ____.
frequency
A directional antenna issues wireless signals along a(n) ____ direction.
single
In ____, a wireless signal splits into secondary waves when it encounters an obstruction.
diffraction
____ is a most significant problem for wireless communications because the atmosphere is saturated with electromagnetic waves.
Interference
In ____ wireless systems, the result is a point-to-point link.
fixed
In ____ scanning, the station transmits a special frame, known as a probe, on all available channels within its frequency range.
active
A unique characteristic of the 802.11 data frame is its ____ field.
Sequence Control
The average geographic range for an 802.11a antenna is ____ meters.
20
____ is the least popular WLAN standard.
802.11a
An 802.11g antenna has a geographic range of ____ meters.
100
____ may use either the 2.4-GHz or 5-GHz frequency range.
802.11n
____ is an 802.11n feature that allows two adjacent 20-MHz channels to be combined to make a 40-MHz channel.
Channel bonding
____ is an 802.11n network feature allowing the combination of multiple frames into one larger frame.
Frame aggregation
Using Bluetooth version 2.0, communicating nodes can be as far as ____ meters apart.
30
____ is a command-line function for viewing and setting wireless interface parameters and it is common to nearly all versions of Linux and UNIX.
iwconfig
If intermittent and difficult-to-diagnose wireless communication errors occur, ____ might be the culprit.
interface
LEO satellites orbit the Earth with an altitude as low as ____ miles.
100
____ satellites are the type used by the most popular satellite Internet access service providers.
Geosynchronous orbiting
Satellite Internet access providers typically use frequencies in the C- or ____ bands.
Ku-
Dial return satellite Internet access is a(n) ____ technology.
asymmetrical
Satellite return Internet access is a(n) ____ technology.
symmetrical
The use of multiple frequencies to transmit a signal is known as ____________________ technology.
spread- spectrum
____ is one of the most important functions an NOS provides.
Client support
A piece of software called ____ translates requests and responses between a client and a server.
middleware
A(n) ____ is a list that organizes resources and associates them with their characteristics.
directory
A(n) ____ is the record of a user that contains all of his properties, including rights to resources, password, name, and so on.
account
The printer queue is a ____ representation of the printer's input and output.
logical
The term ____ memory refers to the RAM chips that are installed on the computer's system board and whose sole function is to provide memory to that machine.
physical
____ memory may be logically carved out of space on the hard drive for temporary use.
Virtual
A(n) ____ is a routine of sequential instructions that runs until it has achieved its goal.
process
A(n) ____ is a self-contained, well-defined task within a process.
thread
The support and use of multiple processors to handle multiple threads is known as ____.
multiprocessing
A(n) ____ is a pictorial representation of computer functions that, in the case of NOSs, enables administrators to manage files, users, groups, security, printers, and so on.
GUI
A workgroup is a group of interconnected computers that share each other's resources without relying on a central ____.
server
The directory containing information about objects in a domain resides on computers called ____ controllers.
domain
The process of copying directory data to multiple domain controllers is known as ____.
replication
Active Directory organizes multiple domains hierarchically in a domain ____.
tree
Naming (or addressing) conventions in Active Directory are based on the ____ naming conventions.
LDAP
A GUID (globally unique identifier) is a 128-bit number that ensures that no two objects have ____ names.
duplicate
The primary function of the UNIX ____ is to coordinate access to all your computer's hardware, such as the disks, memory, keyboard, and monitor.
kernel
UNIX was one of the first operating systems to implement a ____ file system.
hierarchical
Solaris employs the file system called ____ for its native file system type.
UFS
Every UNIX and Linux system contains full documentation of UNIX commands in the ____ pages.
man
A class ____ network class is reserved for special purposes.
D
In ____ addressing, only Class A, Class B, and Class C addresses are recognized.
classful
In classful addressing, the Class B IPv4 address network ID is located in the ____.
first 16 bits
In classful addressing, Class C IPv4 address host information is located in the ____.
last 8 bits
Within a classful addressing subnet mask, the ____ bits indicate that corresponding bits in an IPv4 address contain network information.
1
Within a classful addressing, ____ is the default subnet mask for a Class C address.
255.255.255.0
When using classful IPv4 addressing, a network ID always ends with an octet of ____.
0
Because the octets equal to 0 and 255 are ____, only the numbers 1 through 254 can be used for host information in an IPv4 address.
reserved
CIDR notation takes the form of the network ID followed by a(n) ____, followed by the number of bits that are used for the extended network prefix.
forward slash ( / )
The ____ gateway is the gateway that first interprets its outbound requests to other subnets, and then interprets its inbound requests from other subnets.
default
The gateways that make up the Internet backbone are called ____ gateways.
core
An example of a popular mail server is ____.
Microsoft Exchange Server
An example of a popular client email software is ____.
Microsoft Outlook
SMTP operates from port ____.
25
The standard message format specified by SMTP allows for lines that contain no more than ____ ASCII characters.
1000
POP3 (Post Office Protocol, version 3) relies on TCP and operates over port ____.
110
IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) is a mail retrieval protocol that was developed as a more sophisticated alternative to ____.
POP3
An administrator can discover the host name assigned to a client by using the ____ utility.
hostname
A program similar to mtr, ____, is available as a command-line utility in Windows XP, Vista, Server 2003, and Server 2008.
pathping
The ____ utility allows you to view a host's routing table.
route
____________________ separates a network into multiple logically defined segments, or subnets.
Subnetting
The gateways that make up the Internet backbone are called ____________________.
core gateways
The combination of additional bits used for subnet information plus the existing network ID is known as the _________________________.
extended network prefix
____ is a social engineering practice in which a person attempts to glean access or authentication information by posing as someone who needs that information.
Phising
In a ____ attack, a person redirects or captures secure transmissions as they occur.
man-in-the-middle
____ software searches a node for open ports.
Port scanner
A router that is not configured to drop packets that match certain suspicious characteristics is an example of a risk associated with ____.
transmission and hardware
A ____ attack occurs when an Internet chat user sends commands to a victim's machine that cause the screen to fill with garbage characters and requires the victim to terminate their chat sessions.
flashing
A ____ main function is to examine packets and determine where to direct them based on their Network layer addressing information.
router's
A ____ firewall is a router (or a computer installed with software that enables it to act as a router) that examines the header of every packet of data it receives to determine whether that type of packet is authorized to continue to its destination.
packet-filtering
A ____ attack occurs when a hacker uses programs that try a combination of a user ID and every word in a dictionary to gain access to the network.
dictionary
The combination of a public key and a private key is known as a ____.
key pair
A(n) ____ is a password-protected and encrypted file that holds an individual's identification information, including a public key.
digital certificate
____ is a method of encrypting TCP/IP transmissions.
SSL
In ____ , a hacker forges name server records to falsify his host's identity.
DNS spoofing
____ is a social engineering practice in which a person attempts to glean access or authentication information by posing as someone who needs that information.
Phishing
A VPN ____ authenticates VPN clients and establishes tunnels for VPN connections.
concentrator
____ protocols are the rules that computers follow to accomplish authentication.
Authentication
RADIUS and TACACS belong to a category of protocols known as AAA (____).
authentication, authorization, and accounting
A router that is not configured to drop packets that match certain suspicious characteristics is an example of a risk associated with ____.
transmission ad hardware
In ____, both computers verify the credentials of the other.
mutual authentication
An NOS that contains a "back door"is an example of a risk associated with ____.
protocols and software
A ____ attack occurs when an Internet chat user sends commands to a victim's machine that cause the screen to fill with garbage characters and requires the victim to terminate their chat sessions.
flashing
A ____ main function is to examine packets and determine where to direct them based on their Network layer addressing information.
router's
A ____ firewall is a router (or a computer installed with software that enables it to act as a router) that examines the header of every packet of data it receives to determine whether that type of packet is authorized to continue to its destination.
packet-filtering
A ____ attack occurs when a hacker uses programs that try a combination of a user ID and every word in a dictionary to gain access to the network.
dictionary
The combination of a public key and a private key is known as a ____.
key pair
A(n) ____ is a password-protected and encrypted file that holds an individual's identification information, including a public key.
digital certificate
The use of certificate authorities to associate public keys with certain users is known as ____.
PKI
A VPN ____ authenticates VPN clients and establishes tunnels for VPN connections.
concentrator
____ protocols are the rules that computers follow to accomplish authentication.
Authentication
An administrator should take the time to troubleshoot all network problems correctly by asking specific questions designed to identify the problem ____.
scope
____ are often considered first-level support.
Help desk analysts
____ are often considered third-level support.
Help desk coordinators
____ is one of the most important aspects to consider when looking at how a problem solution might affect users and network functionality.
Scope
A ____ is a document (preferably online) that lists every service and software package supported within an organization, plus the names of first- and second-level support contacts for those services or software packages.
supported services list
In a ____ cable, the transmit and receive wire pairs in one of the connectors are reversed.
crossover
____ is a fundamental property of wire that depends on a wire's molecular structure and size.
tone generator
____ is a fundamental property of wire that depends on a wire's molecular structure and size.
Resistance
Resistance is measured in ____.
ohms
____ is the telltale factor for ascertaining where faults in a cable lie.
Impedance
When used on a copper-based cable, a continuity tester applies a small amount of ____ to each conductor at one end of the cable.
voltage
A ____ can be used to intercept a telephone conversation.
butt set
A ____ is a software-based tool that continually monitors network traffic from a server or workstation attached to the network.
network monitor
To take advantage of network monitoring and analyzing tools, the network adapter installed in the machine running the software must support ____ mode.
promiscuous
____ packets exceed the medium's maximum packet size.
Giant
A ____ usually results from a bad NIC.
jabber
A ____ can generate traffic in an attempt to reproduce a network problem and monitor multiple network segments simultaneously.
protocol analyzer
The danger in using a ____ is that it could collect more information than you or the machine can reasonably process.
protocol analyzer
Before using a network monitor or protocol analyzer on a network, it is important to know what ____ on your network normally looks like.
traffic
Viewing the status of the wireless connection on your workstation tells you ____ about your wireless environment.
a little