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Nclex Review Quick basic learning
Terms in this set (81)
What is the ABO?
it is the different classes of human blood
What part of the blood is classified
The red blood cells are distinguished
What other blood is compatible with with Type A?
A or O
What other blood is compatible with Type B?
B or O
What other blood is compatible with Type O?
Type O only
What other blood is compatible with Type AB?
Type A, B, or O
What is another name for acetylsalicylic acids?
What is the indication to give acetylsalicylic acids?
Mild to moderate pain
Does aspirin increase or decrease the effects of methotrexate?
What is methotrexate used for?
Chemotherapy agent & rheumatoid arthritis
What is the primary symptom for GERD?
What test confirms GERD?
Barium swallow fluoroscopy
Wat malfunction allows reflux in GERD?
Lower esophageal sphincter
What is the client teaching of GERD?
low- fat diet
avoid lying flat after meals
What is the virus that causes AIDS?
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
How is HIV transmitted?
sexual intercourse, direct contact with infected blood/ body fluids ( body fluids- semen, breast milk) HIV mother gives birth to baby
Wat are the symptoms of HIV?
Fever, weight loss, night sweats, diarrhea, fatigue
How is the presence of HIV confirmed?
Screening is done FIRST to see if HIV antibodies are present. The test is performed to specifically identify the HIV antibodies
What is the screening test for HIV?
What confirms the screening test?
HIV differeriation assay
(Western Blot is no longer used)
How does HIV attack the body?
It attacks the immune system by destroying T-lymphocytes. The virus also rapidly self-replicates.
What is so important about T-lymphocytes?
T cells help immune system recognize and fight pathogens.
Why is the CD4 count important?
The lower the CD4 count the more damage the virus has done to the body.
What is a normal CD4 count?
(varies) 500-1500, 600-1500 ect
What is the normal CD4 count in a client with HIV?
Anything at or above 500. Client is considered in good health. If below 500 HIV has progressed to AIDS.
If a client CD4 count is below 200, client is at risk for what?
What are some opportunistic infections associated with HIV:
oral pharyngeal canidida (mouth fungus)
What is the goal of HIV medication
to interfere with the virus replicating U=U treatment
The most important medication to know is for HIV/AIDS:
Which isolation percautions are used with HIV?
How do the precautions change with AIDS?
If the client has a low CD4 count and is at risk for opportunistic infection implement private room, reverse isolation, RN wears gown, goggles, and mask when in direct contact with blood or body fluids.
What are teaching points for parents who have a child with HIV?
clean up bodily fluid/blood with 10:1 water/bleach ratio
get all immunizations except live ones MMR, varicella & oral poliovirus
feed high-calorie & protein diet
use gloves to change diapers
What is the definition of acute renal failure?
sudden loss of kidney function to discrete toxins & regulate fluids/ electrolytes
What are some possible causes of acute renal failure?
infection, obstruction and shock
There are three phases to acute renal failure; what are they?
Oliguric, diuretic, and recovery
During the oliguric phase of ARF, what will you see?
this phase lasts one to two weeks.
low urine output less then 400
hyperkalemia, hypertension, elevated BUN (above 20) elevated creatine levels and fluid overload
ARF; what two electrolytes will be elevated?
sodium and phosphate
The diuretic second phase of ARF; what will you see?
urine output slowly returns
What does recovery phase of ARF mean?
The kidneys are recovering through a slow process. Urine output increases and BUN is normal
What are the nursing interventions for ARF?
daily weights, strict I&O's treat causes, diuretics
What is the best diet for a client with ARF?
High carb & low protein
Adam-Stokes syndrome: Where is the complication located?
this is a heart problem.
What will the client experience with adams-stokes syndrome?
Sudden attack of syncope and fainting, seizures,
What will the nurse see on an EKG for a client with adams stokes syndrome?
asystole or ventricular arrhythmias
In regards to Adams stokes syndrome; is there adequate tissue perfusion during the attacks?`
no there will be no tissue perfusion
What is the treatment for adams stokes syndrome?
internal pacemaker via surgery
What oral med can be given after adams stoke syndrome surgery
What is the cause of Addison's disease?
a low production of hormones by adrenal glad. (glucocorticoids & mineralocorticoids)
What are the major symptoms of addison disease?
lethargy, weakness, weight loss
What color is the skin of a client with Addison disease?
Will a client with Addison disease be overweight?
no, weight loss is common
A client with Addison disease; will the serum blood glucose levels be high or low?
low, sodium levels will be low as well
A client with Addison disease will the serum potassium levels be high or low?
What is the treatment for Addison disease?
lifelong glucocorticoid therapy
Clients allergic to latex may also be allergic to which foods?
bananas, kiwi, chestnuts
What standard hospital equipment contains latex?
Blood pressure cuffs, gloves, stethoscopes, tourniquets, band aids, and indwelling catheters
What allergy is contraindicated for IV contrast dye?
What are the major complications of having an amputation performed?
infection, skin breakdown phantom limb pain, joint contractures
What is the positioning for post op care for above the knee and below knee amputation?
elevate first 24 hours, then prone position twice daily to prevent hip flexion (elevate foot of the bed first)
What should the nurse encourage for amputation?
expressing feelings about lost limb
What is phantom limb pain?
Pain felt in an area that has been amputated
Aplastic Anemia signs and symtoms:
bleeding mucus membranes
Aplastic Anemia Treatment
bone marrow transplant
Iron deficiency symptoms
low hemoglobin and hematocrit
treatment for iron deficiency anemia
Vitamin B12 deficiency signs and symptoms
beefy red tongue
Vitamin B12 deficiency Treatment
Cyanocobalamin Vit B12 injection (lifetime)
How is an aneurysm formed? what are the signs and symptoms?
dilation formed at a weak point on the wall of the artery.
What sound would be heard on auscultation of a client with aneurysm?
a blowing bruit
What are some risk factors of an aneurysm?
What is the treatment for an aneurysm?
Surgery-depends on size, strict blood pressure control
What are the signs of a ruptured aneurysm?
Severe pain, nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, decreased level of conscious, hypotension
List teaching points for a client dx with aneurysm:
Avoid straining, lifting, or exerting, take medications on schedule, report severe back/flank pain
The primary symptoms of Anorexia nervosa
What is the perception of the body for a client who is dx with anorexia nervosa?
At what age typically anorexia nervosa occurs?
What is the usual personality type?
Perfectionist, overachievers, low esteem
What is a major cardiac complication of anorexia?
What is the major gynecological complication of anorexia?
What treatment is involved in recovery for anorexia nervosa?
small, frequent meals with counseling and milieu therapy,
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