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The first ionization energy increases from _________ to ____________ along any period
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Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease are neurodegenerative diseases, which are characterized by ___________excessive apoptosisAllelopathy is type of interference competition, where ...the establishment of other individuals who would compete for a mutual resource is preventedIntraspecific competition occurs whencompetition occurs within the same speciesIn commensalism, a form of symbiosis...one of the two organisms benefits while the other remains unaffectedAllelopathy isthe production of biochemicals by an organism that influences the growth, survival, and reproduction of other organisms.Exploitation competition is a type of competition thatoccurs indirectly through depletion of a common resourceApparent competition is a type of competition thatoccurs between two species preyed upon by the same predatorAdding a detergent is a method used to extractintegral proteins because they are more hydrophobic in naturePeripheral membrane proteins are held in place byelectrostatic interactions and hydrogen bondingA scientist wants to detach a peripheral membrane protein from the exterior of a cell membrane. Which is the best method to do so?Changing the salt concentration (a "salt wash") or the pH would disrupt both the electrostatic interactions and the hydrogen bonds and release the peripheral membrane protein from the cell membrane.Centrifuging is often used tobreak apart cells to separate their organelles on the basis of size and shapeDetergents are useful when one needs toexpose integral proteins embedded in the membrane (as integral membrane proteins are hydrophonic)Running a small current through the solution - a technique known as electroporation - is used tocreate temporary holes in the plasma membraneIntegral proteins extendall the way through the plasma membrane and are not easily dislodgedIn deuterostomes, the blastospore, or the opening in the archenteron (the primitive gut that forms during gastrulation), gives rise to the _____anusIn protostomes, the blastospore evolves to become the _______mouth of the embryoThe __________ gives rise to the mouth in protostomes and the anus in deuterostomesblastoporeFunction of microfilamentscytoplasmic streaming, cleavage furrow (cell division), muscle contractionOur muscles are made of long chains of cytoskeleton comprised of two filaments _________ and __________actin and myosinActin is a ____________. If actin degenerates, then our muscles would not contract.microfilamentMyosin is amotor proteinFunction of microtubulesSpindle fibers (cell division), cilia, flagellaLysosomes are vesicles produced from the...the Golgi that contain digestive enzymes for breaking down nutrients, cell debris, and bacteriaIn plants, the ___________ is known to carry out functions performed by the lysosome.central vacuoleThe extracellular matrix primarily functions to...provide mechanical support and helps bind adjacent cellsA chromosome is composed of tightly condensed __________chromatin, which is the general packaging of DNA around proteins in eukaryotesMicrofilaments, along with microtubules and intermediate filaments, are key components of the cell's __________cytoskeletonCholesterol is characterized by...4 rings and is the precursor to many steroid hormonesAldosterone, testosterone, and progesterone all sound very similar, and these are all steroids that are derived from ________cholesterolCortisol is a steroid that is...derived from cholesterol and is released by the adrenal cortex; it is involved in stress adaptationEpinephrine is a _______catecholamine, a class of amino-acid derived hormonesEpinephrine functionIt functions in "fight or flight" response and raises blood glucose levels. It causes vasoconstriction to internal organs and the skin, but causes vasodilation to the skeletal muscles and increases the respiratory and heart rate.Cholesterol is the precursor molecule of ______all the steroid hormonesPili are small short "hairs" called fimbriae on the surface of bacteria that can be used forthe exchange of genetic material between bacteria and in cell adhesion.Bacterial flagellum is a long "tail" made of flagellin that provides ______locomotion to a bacterial cell. In eukaryotes, flagellum is made of microtubules.Clathrin is a __________receptor protein on the surface of a cellA nucleoid region is __________where the DNA exists in a bacterial cell as it does not have a nucleusTeichoic acids are found only on...gram-positive bacteria and help keep the cell wall rigidA muscle cell that has sustained a contraction lasting longer than the normal length of contraction is said to be in ___________tetanusRefractory periods can be absolute or relative - during an absolute refractory period, a second stimulus...cannot generate another action potential no matter how powerful it isRefractory periods can be absolute or relative - during a relative refractory period, a sufficiently powerful stimulus...can cause an action potential to occurOverall glycolysis releases energy to be stored back into more ATP and consumed by the cell. If energy is released, then the reaction is _________exergonicGlycolysis is the ________metabolic breakdown of glucose accompanied by a release of energy used to power the cellGlycolysis (the decomposition of a glucose molecule into pyruvate) takes place in ___________the cytosol of the cellIt is usually anabolism (the metabolic process of building up molecules from smaller units) that is (endergonic/exergonic).endergonicA karyotype is a __________digital image of the size, shape, and number of chromosomes of an organism, allowing us to observe any extra copies of chromosomesGel electrophoresis is a laboratory technique used to _________identify and separate DNA, RNA, and proteins based on size and charge to determine genetic relatednessPolymerase Chain Reaction ("PCR") is a technique used to _________replicate and amplify a DNA sample in vitroNorthern blotting is a laboratory technique used to _________identify the sequence of messenger RNA and to study gene expressionDNA fingerprinting is the process of ___________keeping a database of each individual's DNA sequences and/or makeup for forensic or genetic reasonsStereo microscopesanother name for dissection microscopes, which only offer low magnification to observe the surface of a specimenTransmission electron micrograph (TEM)flat, 2D, and extremely magnifiedFluorescence microscopes produce colorful images by...dying the specimen with fluorophores and illuminating them with a specific wavelength of lightScanning electron micrograph (SEM)a 3D image at an extremely high magnification, allowing you to study the morphology and surface of the specimenBioluminescence is the _________production and emission of light by an organismFungi cell walls are made of __________both glucans and chitin, a characteristic which is unique to the kingdomPlant cell walls are made ofcelluloseBacteria cell walls are made ofpeptidoglycansPassive immunity, although a temporary form of immunity, occurs when __________one organism can pass along their antibodies to another organism to prevent infectionActive immunity is brought about when...an organism is infected or exposed to a virus/bacterium that then causes an internal initiation of the immune system. With this type of immunity, the organism makes its own memory cells to be ready for a later infectionNatural immunity refers to when...an immune response is generated by natural means (as opposed to an artificial method, such as the use of a vaccine)Artificial immunity refers to whenan immune response is generated by artificial means, such as in vaccination where antigenic material is intentionally introduced to cause an immune response.Permanent immunity refers to the same concept as secondary response in immunity:having been previously infected by a certain antigen, such as a bacteria or virus, the body will be able to quickly recognize and mount an immune response to the same antigen (much faster than during the initial exposure which results in the primary responseThe Miller-Urey experiment used _________________ sealed in a sterile arrangement of tubes and flasks with connecting loops.ammonia, methane, water, and hydrogenMiller-Urey experiment: after 2 weeks, they observed several _____________. However, no complete nucleic acids were observed.organic compounds, amino acids, and their base starting materials.Oligodendrocytes are responsible for __________laying down the myelin sheath surrounding neurons in the central nervous systemThe central nervous system includes ________brain and spinal cordThe _________ of the PNS myelinate axons, in contrast to the oligodendrocytes of the CNS.Schwann cellsMyelination increases the ________conduction speed of action potentials, and the method of action potential propagation in myelinated axons is described as saltatory conductionIn the brain, the outer cell bodies are the ________ while the inner axons form the _____grey matter, white matterThe main extracellular buffer in humans is __________bicarbonate; this is how CO2 is transported throughout the body___________ are used as the main intracellular buffer inside cells.Phosphate and other proteinsAt the lungs, the blood disposes of __________CO2 and absorbs O2 and then returns to the heart through the pulmonary vein. Therefore the blood in the pulmonary vein should be high in O2The pulmonary artery has a low concentration of ____________oxygen and the pulmonary vein has a high concentration of oxygenBlood in the pulmonary vein is highly __________oxygenated, which means that it just left the capillaries of the lungs where an abundance of CO2 was recently exhaled out and an abundance of O2 was inhaled. This would lead to low levels of CO2Which of the following is a method marine fish use to maintain homeostasis?A marine fish is hypoosmostic to its environment, meaning that it is less salty than the concentrated saltwater surrounding it. Therefore, it will constantly lose water to the environment. To make up for this, the marine fish must constantly drink water. It also rarely urinates to not waste any water, and it secretes the salts it acquires from constantly drinking.Freshwater fish are ________, or saltier than their environment.hyperosmotic. Therefore, water will constantly flow into the fish. The fish must constantly urinate to get rid of the excess water. It also rarely drinks, and absorbs salt through its gills to maintain homeostasis.FurtPlatyhelminthes and Cnidaria lack a ______________complete digestive system - both Cnidaria and Platyhelminthes instead have a gastrovascular cavity in which two way digestion takes place, rather than the one way digestion through an alimentary canal seen in other classes with digestive systemsWhy does cartilage take a considerable amount of time to heal?Cartilage consists of living tissue in close proximity to bone. However, it does not have its own blood supply. As a result, nutrients can only access cartilage through slow diffusion, hence why it takes a considerable amount of time to heal.Operant conditioninguse of reinforcement to condition a response to a stimulusPavlovian conditioningcorrelates autonomic response to an environmental stimulus (e.g. the experiment where the dog was conditioned to salivate upon hearing a bell ring by pairing feeding with ringing the bell)Habituationwhen a normal response to the stimulus is suppressed upon repeated stimulationImprintingexposure to a certain environmental stimulus during a critical period during developmentDescribe nucleotides as found in DNAThe double-stranded DNA complex has a sugar-phosphate backbone, with a nitrogenous base, which could be a purine (A or G), or pyrimidine (C or T). This base is hydrogen-bonded to another base on a corresponding nucleotideAntherpart of the stamen that produces microsporesPistilproduces megasporesNondisjunctionfailure of some homologous pairs of chromosomes to separate following meiotic synapsis; the result is an extra chromosome or a missing chromosome for a given pairThe number of chromosomes in a case of single nondisjunction is2n+1 or 2n-1; most of these embryos are aborted early in their developmentT or F: homologous chromosomes come together and cross over during synapsistrueThe first meiotic division is also known asthe reduction divisionThe chromosomes form a __________ during prophase ItetradWhy does DNA replication occur?so that each daughter cell will receive a complete copy of the genomeDescribe what it means for DNA replication to be semi-conservativehalf of the original DNA (one strand) is present in each of the new or daughter double-stranded DNA moleculesOkazaki fragmentsformed on the lagging strand so that while the DNA is synthesized in the 5' to 3' direction in short segments, overall it is synthesized in the 3' to 5' directionGas exchange with the environment in an insect occurs throughtracheae; this is the extensive system that permits air to directly reach cells within the bodyLarge aquatic animals respire throughgillsAlveoliwhere gas exchange of CO2 and O2 occurs in the lungs of humansTaigaan environment with coniferous forests, harsh winters, and short summers; this is the environment found in northernmost CanadaTundrafound at northern and high-altitude regions and has vegetation limited to low shrubby and matlike growthPelagic zoneaquatic zone that consists of all open water not associated with the sea floorAn animal eats decaying matter from a dead animal. What kind of interaction is this?Scavenging; an already dead animal is being consumedSymbiosisrelationship between two organisms in contact in the same environmentParasitismrelationship where one organism benefits at the expense of anotherMutualismrelationship where both organisms benefitCommensalismrelationship in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffectedDuring glycolysis, a series of reactions occur that lead tothe oxidative breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate; ATP is also formed and NAD+ is reduced to NADH; pyruvate then goes on to be decarboxylated to form acetyl-CoAFADH2high energy molecule formed during the citric acid cycleFor the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the frequency of each independent assorting allele is equal top + q = 1Glycolysis and fermentation occurin the cytoplasmThe citric acid cycle and pyruvate decarboxylation occurwithin the mitochondrial matrixThe electron transport chain occurswithin the inner mitochondrial membraneWhat is the net production of ATP during glycolysis?2 ATPExplain why glycolysis has a net production of 2 ATPGlycolysis uses 2 ATP during the conversion to pyruvate, but 4 ATP are generated from the 2 NADH produced during the process, leaving the net production of ATP during glycolysis at 2 ATPNet yield of ATP from complete oxidation of glucose36 ATPThese are all characteristics of ___________ -can produce milk -have three bones in the middle ear -have fur or hair -have heterodont dentition -have sebaceous (oil-producing) and sudorifeous (sweat) glandsmammalsheterodont dentitiondifferent kinds of teethPoikilothermorganism who has a varied internal temperature, such as an amphibian, reptile, or a large group of invertebratesThe brain is divided into three sections:forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain; or prosencephalon, mesencephalon, rhombencephalonThe prosencephalon is made up ofThe upper telencephalon (containing the cerebrum) and the lower diencephalon (containing the thalamus and hypothalamus)Components of rhombencephaloncerebellum and medullaIn asexual reproductionoffspring are produced without fertilizationDoes asexual reproduction increase genetic variation?Genetic variation is enhanced with sexual reproduction as offspring receive a combination of genes from both parents. Asexual reproduction, with its replication of genetic material from the sole parent, does not contribute much to genetic variation.cos (x) =cos (-x)-sin (x) =sin (-x)Nonmetal elements are mostly in the ________ stategasNonmetal elements in the solid statebrittle, poor conductors of heat and electricity, and they are electronegative (they want to gain electrons)Characteristics of metalsmalleable and ductile, high conductivityElectronegativity increasesfrom left to right, from bottom to topIonization energy increasesfrom left to right, from bottom to topAtomic radius increasefrom right to left, from top to bottomNonmetal character increasestowards top right cornerMetal character increasestowards bottom left corner