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Comprehensive Exam Week 1
Terms in this set (20)
According to psychoanalytic theory, the critical aspect of psychopathology is
conflict between wish and anxiety
a central premise was thus that we are driven by unconscious wishes that we are unaware of and this lack of awareness results in driven or self-defeating behavior.
Universal images or symbols are known as
Rogers' theory of personality emphasized
He believed that everyone exists in a constantly changing world of experiences that they are at the center of. A person reacts to changes in their phenomenal field, which includes external objects and people as well as internal thoughts and emotions. Ideal self vs. real self
According to the existential view, certain problems
are inherent in the nature of existence
The existential perspective on human nature emphasizes individual freedom to choose one's values and meaning in life
Overall, cross-cultural research on the Big Five suggests that
at least three of the Big Five are universal
The five broad personality traits described by the theory are extraversion (also often spelled extroversion), agreeableness, openness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism.
The giant three - Psychoticism, Extraversion, Neuroticism
Critics of trait theory mostly focus on the problem of
In psychology, trait theory (also called dispositional theory) is an approach to the study of human personality. Trait theorists are primarily interested in the measurement of traits, which can be defined as habitual patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion.According to this perspective, traits are aspects of personality that are relatively stable over time, differ across individuals (e.g. some people are outgoing whereas others are not), are relatively consistent over situations, and influence behavior.
According to learning theory, whatever consistency is found in behavior is most likely the result of
similarity of environmental conditions evoking the behavior------ Social learning theory is a theory of learning process and social behavior which proposes that new behaviors can be acquired by observing and imitating others
The major difference between social cognitive theory and other learning approaches (e.g., Skinner) is that social learning theory
emphasizes learning in the absence of reinforcement ----- This theory was advanced by Albert Bandura as an extension of his social learning theory. The theory states that when people observe a model performing a behavior and the consequences of that behavior, they remember the sequence of events and use this information to guide subsequent behaviors
Mental structures that allow us quickly to interpret complex stimuli are called
schemas ---- A schema is a cognitive framework or concept that helps organize and interpret information. Schemas can be useful because they allow us to take shortcuts in interpreting the vast amount of information that is available in our environment.
Having feelings towards someone that are based on experiences from someone else in your past is called
According to Descartes,
animals are pure machines; humans have bodies that are machines, but they also have rational minds ---- René Descartes famously thought that animals were merely 'mechanisms' or 'automata' - basically, complex physical machines without experiences - and that as a result, they were the same type of thing as less complex machines like cuckoo clocks or watches. He believed this because he thought that thoughts and minds are properties of an immaterial soul; thus, humans have subjective experience only because they have immaterial souls inhering in their physical bodies.
What is ecological memory?
it's the study of memory for everyday events --- Ecological memory (EM) is defined as the capability of the past states or experiences of a community to influence the present or future ecological responses of the community.
With which of the following statements would William James be most likely to agree?
the function of habit is to allow consciousness to focus on more important matters having to do with adapting to the environment
In America in the early 1920s, most applied psychologists who did mental testing would agree with all of the following except
so-called IQ measures academic success, not innate intelligence
They did agree that:
-immigration, especially from Southern Europe, should be restricted
-scores on IQ tests reflect inherent biological ability
-it might be necessary to sterilize those who are mentally unfit to bear children
In order for insight to occur, according to Köhler, the individual
must be able to see all the elements of the problem situation --- In the 1920s, German psychologist Wolfgang Kohler was studying the behavior of apes. He designed some simple experiments that led to the development of one of the first cognitive theories of learning, which he called insight learning. In this experiment, Kohler hung a piece of fruit just out of reach of each chimp.
Which of the following best characterizes the reaction to Watsonian behaviorism?
behaviorism came to dominate American psychology, but it happened only gradually, with the school becoming a major force only in the 1930s
Which of the following is true about Freud's theories?
his idea about childhood sexuality, the basis for the Oedipal complex, was the only part of his theory that was truly originated by him
With which of the following statements would Carl Rogers agree?
scientific methods can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of therapy -- Rogers "consistently stood for an empirical evaluation of psychotherapy. He and his followers have demonstrated a humanistic approach to conducting therapy and a scientific approach to evaluating therapy need not be incompatible." --- Person-Centered/Client-Centered therapy
The linguist Noam Chomsky believed that language is something unique to humans and therefore part of a human "instinct." To support his argument, he argued that
all languages involve a grammar --- Since the 1960s Chomsky has maintained that syntactic knowledge is at least partially inborn, implying that children need only learn certain language-specific features of their native languages
Napoleon's all-consuming need for power would be used by Allport as an example of a
cardinal trait --- Cardinal traits are those that dominate an individual's personality to the point that the individual becomes known for them.
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