Environmental Science Chapter 4

Holt Environmental Science Book Cottengim
STUDY
PLAY
Ecosystem
are communities of organisms and their abiotic environment.
Biotic Factors
are environmental factors that are associated with or results from the activities of living organisms which includes plants, animals, dead organisms, and the waste products of organisms.
Abiotic Factors
are environmental factors that are not associated with the activities of living organisms which includes air, water, rocks, and temperature.
Organism
are living things that can carry out life processes independently.
Species
are groups of organisms that are closely related can can mate to produce fertile offspring.
Population
are groups of organisms of the same species that live in a specific geographical area and interbreed.
Community
are groups of various species that live in the same habitat and interact with each other.
Habitat
A place where an organism lives
Kingdoms
A grouping system that divides organisms into 6 major categories based on different characteristics
Cells
Smallest unit of biological organization
Nucleus
Contains the cell's genetic material
Cell Walls
Structures that surround cells to provide them with support
Archaebacteria
Single celled organisms that live in extreme environments
Eubacteria
Single celled organisms that are common; found in soil and animal bodies
Fungus (Fungi)
Organisms whose cells have a nuclei and cell walls, mostly live on land, and absorb food through their body; mushrooms
Protists
Mostly singled celled, but some multicellular organisms that live mostly in water; Amoeba, kelp
Plants
Multicellular organisms with cell walls that make their own food using the sun's energy
Vascular Tissue
A system of tubes that carries water and food with this cell walls
Gymnosperms
Woody plants that produce seeds that are not enclosed in fruits; Pine trees
Angiosperms
Flowering plants that produce seeds in fruit; Flowers, grass
Animals
Organisms that cannot make their own food and have no cell walls
Vertebrates
Animals that have a backbone; Fish
Invertebrates
Animals that lack a backbone; Insects
Mammals
Warm blooded vertebrates that have fur and feed their young milk
Ecosystems need five basic components:
energy, mineral nutrients, water, oxygen, and living organisms.
Evolution
is a change in the characteristics of a population from one generation to the next.
Natural selection
is the process by which individuals that have favorable variations and are better adapted to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than less well adapted individuals do.
Adaptation
is the process of becoming adapted to an environment. It is an anatomical, physiological, or behavioral change that improves a population's ability to survive.
Coevolution
is the process of two species evolving in response to long-term interactions with each other.
Artificial selection
is the selective breeding of organisms, by humans, for specific desirable characteristics.
Resistance
is the ability of an organism to tolerate a chemical or disease-causing agent.