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Bronze Zeus from the Sea, early 5th c BCE, flattened "severe" style
Myron's Diskobolos: mid 5th c BCE anatomically impossible
Pediments of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia: 470-454 BCE, Levon was the Architect and Phidias sculpted Ivory and Gold (Chryselephantine)
East Pediment: Oinomaos
race suitors of daughter (Hippodamea) --> Peplos cheats, wins, creates blood curse
West Pediment:
Lapittut Centaurs, Wedding Feast of Perithous
Parthenon: Apex of Doric Temple Design, inspired by Temple of Hephaistos in Greece. Designed by Iktinos with Entasis (convex curve) 5th c BCE
Erechtheion: Karyatid's, descendants of 1st Persian war (punishment) 5th c BCE
Propylaia: built with remnants of mycennean wall, main entrance to acropolis, 5th c BCE
Polykleitos' Doryphoros: Spear Bearer, Contraposto pose, ex. High Classic Sculpture, 2nd half of 5th c BCE
Parthenon Metopes 27 & 31: Battle of Centaurs and Lapiths, 5th c BCE
Aphrodite of Knidos: first found female Greek nude, caught bathing, originally bronze, many copies in antiquity made (Venus and Aphrodite), 4th c BCE
Lysippos' Apoxymenos: sculptor for Alexander the Great, Youth scraping himself, Also did Farnese Hercules, 4th c BCE
Stoa of Attalos: Wall on one side and open on other, Pergamene Order, Early Hellenistic 159-138 BC
Great Altar of Pergamon: 241-197 BCE, frieze displays battle of Olympians against the giants. Zeus (throwing lighting and snake-like legs) vs Athena (pulling hair of Alkyoneos), Glorifies the Gauls to make victory more important
Temple of the Olympian Zeus: started by Peisistratos, continued by Antiochos IV & Cossutius, finished by Sulla 86 BCE
Dying Gaul(/Trumpeter): Middle Hellenistic Sculpture (mid 3rd-2nd c BCE) aka Baroque (overdone in emotion). Glorifies the enemy and heroically nude
Statue of the 'Drunken Old Woman': Hellenistic shows her pain and illness
Nike of Samothrace: 200 BCE Middle Hellenistic Baroque, probably sat on sculpted boat and shows billowing wind,
Aphrodite of Melos: aka Venus di Milo, Classicism references, Late Hellenistic mid 2nd c -31 BCE, playful eroticism/about to drop
The Seated Boxer: Roman, older man (shown by beard), probably in a bath house, 1st c BCE
Aphrodite and Pan from Delos: commissioned by Syrian merchant, "slipper slapper", slap pan while Cupid holds him back
Statue of Laocoön and sons: 1st c BCE or CE, domus aurea (Nero's House of Gold), Trojan Priest who tries to show problems of the horse, Hellenistic pyramid form w/ suffering subjects, discovered in 1506 w/ Michaelangelo
753 BCE
Rome was Founded:
753-509 BCE
Regnal/Kings Period:
509-27 BCE
Republic:
27 BCE- fall
Empire:
Cloaca Maxima: 600 BCE, sewage and water irrigation/ aquaducts
Curia: courthouse, survived by transforming into Church,
Three Republican Temples at Largo Argentina: All related to warfare, D: Largest 2nd c BCE made of Tuf (maritime), C: Tuf, B: Latest late 1st c CE (fortuna), A. Tuf/ Limestone
Servian Wall:
Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia: architecture made for Pilgrim journey including spaces for merchants, 2nd c BCE, in Palestrina
Patrician carrying two heads of his ancestors: Verism/ more real than real --> long, successful political career, late republic
Brutus: Bronzework, archetypal republican, 1st c BCE, arringatore
Ara Pacis: 9 BCE Campus martius, bucranium and acanthus leaves: pastoral scene/peace, scenes of Aeneas OR Numa (bringing religion), Tellus/Pax/Venus Genetrix
Sundial of Augustus: Obelisk erected at 10 year anniversary of Egypt, pointed to Ara Pacis at Augustus' B-day
Mausoleum of Augustus: late 1st c influenced Tomb of Alexander
Statue of Augustus from Prima Porta: early 1st c CE, barefeet shows divinity, based on Poryphoros of Polykletios, breast plate shows Parrthian handing standards back and a celebration of military victory
Portland Vase: 1st c CE, cameo (two types of glass) first made in blue then dipped in white and chipped, possibly the marriage of Pelius and Thelius (birth of Achiles), possibly Marc Antony and Cleopatra, cremation urn?
Gemma Augustea: 1st c CE cameo portraying Augustus as God w/ Astrological Moon w/ Tiberius and image of war against Germans
Aqueduct of Pond du Gard: infrastructure mid 1st c
Domus Aurea: built by Nero took up 1/3 of city after fire, built by Severus and celer, 'grotesques'
Pompeii: House of Loreius Tibertinus:
Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre): 80 CE, gladiators,
Arch of Titus: shows spoils of war against the Israelites,
Trajan's Markets/Forum:
The Pantheon: 125-128 CE: dedicated to all gods, founded by Agrippa during Augustan period, largest dome by Romans and largest span until modernity, conglomerate to pumice, colums arrived w/wrong measurements?
Hadrian's Villa: 140 CE
Mausoleum of Hadrian: completed 140 CE same size as Augustus
Temple of Antonius Pius and Faustina: c161
Column base of Antonius Pius: c161, Column Base, Personification of campus martius and Roma, Roma's shield detail has Romulus and Remus, funerary side: circling motion
Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius: c164-166, Emperor and Stoic Philosophy (peace and balance but loss of stability), mistaken for constantine
Family Portrait of the Severans: 199 CE, damnatio memorae, Caracalla won and Geata erased
Column of Marcus Aurelius: 180-192 CE, shows suffering of war (compared to spoils and victory), funerary movement
Aurelian Wall: 270-275 Rome gets walls for first time, shows weakness
Portrait of the Tetrarchs from Piazza San Marco, Venice: 4th c CE, Augusti and Caesars (Diocletian, Maximian, Constanius, Galerius)
Mycenae Shaft Graves
Schliemann excavated Knossos found Grave circle A and B (c 1675 bce). Mask of Agamemmnon found
Inlaid Dagger from Grave Circle A: made of niello (alloy of silver and sulfur). Minoan Art
Lion Gate Mycenae: LH III3, Mid 13th c: corbel vaulting and relieving triangles
Palace of King Nestor at Pylos: Carl Blegen excavated.
Ivory Triad of Dieties
Crisis of 1200 BCE
decline of Hatti, Syria, and Egypt (objective term)
Greek Dark Age
..., period of Dorian rule in greece when the empire spreads through colonization of the Agean (crete/turkey/Italy), Linear B is lost, and there are no cultural advancements
Great Temple of Solomon: 970-930 BCE
Geometric Krater with the 'Departure of Helen'
flutes and arrises
designs on a column (U and V)
echinus
abacus
epistyle
regulae
guttae
geison
pediment
Ionic Order
base
stylobate
Volute
Epistyle
Dentil Frieze is exclusive to Ionic
Doric and Ionic Order
7th c BCE introduced. wooden original/ male and female meanings.
Temple of Apollo at Thermon: NW Greece 630 BCE. A bit too long and thin. Terra Cotta Entablature
Lady from Auxerre: geometric style and stood at a temple entrance. 7th century BCE
'Macmillan' Aryballos: used to carry oil and is very small. Inspired by Orientalizing forms imported from Anatolian/ Corinthian influences 7th c BCE
Eleusis Vase:tells the story of Odysseus and features cyclops, perseus, gorgons. 7th c BCE
Magna Graecia
..."Great Greece"; The areas in southern Italy and Sicily where many Greek colonies were established
Villanovans
10th-8th c BCE colonies in early Magna Graecia Italy. Burial rites include: Hut urns and Bi-Conical Urns
'Cowboys' of Murlo: Orientalizing Period 6th-5th c BCE. Acroterial Statue (sat on top of roof)
Apollo of Veii
Tomb of the Bulls: in Tarquinia mid to late 6th c BCE
Tomb of the Augurs: in Tarquinia late 6th c BCE
Sarcophagus from Cerveteri: late 6th c BCE
Neo-Babylonian period
7th-5th c BCE includes Babylonia Exile and creation of Israel tribes
François Vase: c570 BCE shows marriage of Peleus and Thetis along w/ Achilles
Anavysos kouros: c540-515 BCE Archaic
Peplos Kore: c530 BCE paint remnants
Kore no. 675: Ionic Dress feat a Himation and Chiton
Euthydikos Kore: early 5th c "severe style" (sharp angles = simplification)
"The Neolithic Revolution"
the transition from hunting/gathering to agriculture and the beginning of firing clay
Natufians
10500BCE: had carvings into bone and nonutilitarian art. Buried the head of special ancestor/fertility symbols.
Great Mother: A statue of a woman that sat in households with overdone fertility symbols.
Hagar Qim: Megalithic temple in Malta 3600-3200 BCE, large orthostadts and different rooms
Hypogeum of Hal Saflieni
Underground temple/tomb in Malta where Mother Goddess figures and scattered skeleton were found
Ubaid Period
5500-3700BCE extremely dry, saw a rise in population and irrigation
Uruk/Warka
the site of Gilgamesh contained many temples in tact along with evidence of the evolution of writing
White Temple of Sky God Anu: Included a ziggurat and temple on top in Uruk 4000 BCE
Blau Monuments: 3,000 BCE Uruk tablets that show the sale of land and early forms of Cuneiform,
Cuneiform Writing
started in Uruk and was created through using a reed on soft clay creating a wedge shaped imprint.
Royal Tombs of Ur: 16 Graves EDII/EDIII 2600-2500. There were 74 people found in one tomb,
Mnajdra:
c3000 BCE close to Hagar Qim, use of corbelling and post/lintel
Uruk Vase: c3000 BCE, depicts sacrifice and offerings procession to Inanna
Tell Asmar Votive Figurines: EDII ca 2700 BCE, allowed spirit to be present when body was not at temple, carved eyes and stylized beards and clothing
Royal Standard: found in Royal Tombs 2600-2400 BCE, war vs peace,
Head of Sargon of Akkad: Lost wax casting c2000 BCE shows stylistic beard with stones for eyes (scraped out)
Stele of Naram-Sin: 2300 BCE shows victory and god status
Ziggurat at Ur: Ur III c 2000 BCE, restored during neo-babylonian times and more recent conflict follows
Narmer Palette: c3000 BCE could've been used for grinding cosmetics or herbs
Great Pyramid at Giza
Djoser's Step Pyramid: 2686-2613 BCE Third Dynasty, built over smaller pyramid
Sneferu's Three Pyramids:
Medium, Bent, and Red
Medium Pyramid: Fourth Dynasty
Bent Pyramid: Fourth Dynasty
Red Pyramid: First True Pyramid
Funerary Statue of Mentuhotep II: 2055-2004 BCE Tomb of the Warriors
Statue of Senusret III: 1870-1831 BCE Twelfth Dynasty Middle Kingdom
Cylinder Seal of Sobekneferu: 1777-1773 BCE Second Intermediate Period easy way to write on clay
Stele of Hammurabi:1792-1750 BCE Old Babylonian Period, neo-summerians, may have the code of hammurabi (first written law)
Kamares Ware: 2100-1550 BCE, pottery with stylized plant or marine motifs
Fresco of the Bull Leapers: highly restored, shows religious act of riding/jumping a bull Middle Minoan B (17th-15th c BCE)
Snake Goddesses: Faience (glazed ceramics) possibly mother goddesses, 1600 BCE
Hagia Triadha Sarcophagus: 1370-1320 BCE shows funeral rites when Crete was under Mycenean rule
Harvester Vase (Rhyton): container from which liquids are drunk during a ceremony
Bulls' Head Rhyton: may have been smashed after use (also restored)
Marine Style Minoan Pottery: LMIB (15th-14th c)
Shabtis: magical burial amulets, 1900 BCE
Coffinette for the Viscera of Tutankamun: Middle Kingdom
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