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Thickened, white, leathery-looking spots on the inside of the mouth that can develop into oral cancer

Erythroplasia (erythroplakia)

Squamous cell carcinoma

Type of skin cancer more serious than basal cell carcinoma; often characterized by scaly red papules or nodules.

Snuff lesion (smokeless tobacco lesion)


form of hypercementosis that is associated with localized destruction of the bone

Oral lesions Common to AIDS

Foliate papillae

small fold of mucosa along the lateral side of the tongue

Varix (plural: varices)

Torus palatinus

nodular bony ridge down the middle of the hard palate, more common in females, Native Americans and Asians

Torus mandibularis

a bony protuberance on the lingual aspect of the lower jaw in the canine premolar region

Idiopathic Osteosclerosis

Defect where dense bone forms for no apparent reason

Osteoporotic bone marrow defect

Fordyce granules

small, isolated white or yellow papules on the mucosa of cheek, tongue, and lips. these lil sebaceous cysts are painless and not significant


opalescent (milky) buccal mucosa; appears as a diffuse gray-white film; common in blacks; cannot be removed; becomes less distinct when tissue is stretched

Aphthous stomatitis (Canker sore)

shallow ulcer with a white or yellow center and red border; seen on the inner side of the lip and cheeks or on the tongue; it begins with a burning or tingling sensation and slight swelling; painful; usually lasts 7-10 days and heals without a scar

Herpesvirus infections

Recurrent small blisters on the lips, primary herpetic stomatitis, or intraoral lesions

Papillary hyperplasia (PH)

denture sore mouth (DSM)

Dentigerous cyst

Cyst that is seen around an unerupted or impacted tooth:

Epulis fissuratum (Inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia)

Caused by ill-fitting denture
-surface is often ulcerated
composed of dense, fibrous tissue, same type of tissue as an imitation fibroma
tx: surgical removal & construction of new denture

Irritation fibroma-traumatic fibroma

• Fibrocollagenous hyperplasia • Trauma
• Buccal mucosa, tongue, lip
• Symptoms present only if ulcerated
Treatment: Conservative surgical excision


cyst that forms when the salivary duct ruptures and saliva accumulates in the soft tissue


benign, superficial wart-like growth on the epithelial tissue or elsewhere in the body, such as in the bladder

Peripheral fibroma

Most common form of odontogenic tumor. Similar in appearance to other focal growths of the gingiva. Asymptomatic. Painless. Gingival, mandible. Normal color or red. Nonspecific radiolucency. Uni- or multilocular.

Pyogenic granuloma

response to injury, puberty, pregnancy can all be causes it is most common on the gingiva, deep red-purple exophytic lesion usually ulcerated, granulation tissues

Peripheral giant cell granuloma

A reactive lesion that occurs on the gingival or alveolar mucosa, typically anterior to the molars. it is usually a result of local irritating factors.

Traumatic ulcer

Ulcerative lesion due to trauma- Healing usually lasts 7-14 days

Nicotine stomatitis

White lesion on hard palate of heavy smokers; Initial response= redness due to heat; With time = Keratinization. The raised red dots represent duct openings of minor salivary glands. Coarse, white, wrinkled appearance

Gingival hyperplasia

an enlargement of the gums frequently seen in pregnancy, in leukemia, or after prolonged use of phenytoin (Dilantin)

Geographic tongue (benign migratory glossitis)

Painless Inflamed, irregularly shaped areas on dorsum of tongue, devoid of filiform papilla
Lesions are red, slightly depressed and bordered by whitish band. Spontaneous healing and recurrence

Lichen planus

a chronic skin condition characterized by itching & small flat, purplish papules and patches that exhibit gray lines

Angular cheilosis

Inflammation at the corners of the mouth that may be caused by nutritional deficiency of the B complex vitamins, but most commonly is a fungal condition.

Candidosis (Candidiasis, Moniliasis, Thrush)

Dental caries

an infectious disease caused by bacteria that destroy the enamel and dentin of the tooth; also known as tooth decay or a cavity

Marginal gingivitis

Common among teenagers and young adults. The gingival margins are reddened and swollen, the interdental papillae are blunted, swollen, and red. Brushing the teeth often makes the gums bleed.

Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis

inflammation of the gingiva characterized by necrosis of the interdental papillae, ulceration of the gingiva margins, appearance of a pseudomembrane, pain, and odor


Inflammation of the supporting tissues of the teeth.

Periapical cyst (radicular cyst)

A cyst with a wall of fibrous connective tissue and a lining of stratified squamous epithelium that is attached to the root apex of a tooth with a dead pulp or a defective root canal filling. Most common oral cyst.

Periapical dental granuloma

Condensing osteitis

reaction to low grade infection; at root apex; asymptomatic; found radiographically


Inflammation of tissue surrounding partially erupted tooth, usually the 2nd or 3rd molars

Amalgam tattoo

A flat bluish-gray lesion of the oral mucosa that results from the introduction of amalgam particles into the tissues.

Hairy tongue

profuse overgrowth of filiform papillae - often following antibiotic therapy, fever, mouthwashes, tobacco

Nasopalatine duct cyst

Radiographically: oval radiolucency in the middle of the anterior maxilla. May appear "Heart shaped" due to anterior nasal spine.

Dentigerous cyst

A cyst that forms around the crown of an unerupted or developing tooth. Also called a follicular cyst. Second most common cyst.

Melanin Pigmentation

-brownish pigment of varying degrees -usually on gingiva -can be associated w/ diseases -no tx unless melanoma -may be generalized or localized

Retrocuspid Papillae

sessile nodule on the gingival margin of the lingual aspect of the mandibular cuspids

Linea Alba

"white line", hyperkeratotic, common with bruxism or clenching habit

lingual Thyroid Nodule

ton, clinically appears as a smooth, nodular mass at the base of the tongue posterior to the circumvallate papillae on or near the midline

Median Rhomboid Glossitis

Devoid of filiform papilla; may be assoc. with candida albicans; red area on midline of tongue


hard tooth tissue loss, possibly caused by tensile and compressive forces during tooth flexture.


The process of wearing the teeth down by a chemical action.

Meth Mouth

the decaying of teeth due to decreased saliva production in methamphetamine users

Kaposi's sarcoma

malignant tumor of the blood vessels associated with AIDS

Aspirin or chemical burn

appears as a painful white area of epithelial necrosis that may slough off leaving a large ulcerated area on the buccal or labial mucosa?


the collection of blood under the skin as the result of blood escaping into the tissue from damaged blood vessels. bruise

Frictional Keratosis

Chronic rubbing or friction against an oral mucosa surface resulting in hyperkeratosis, a thickening of keratin on the surface


Mucocele in floor of mouth, obstruction of Wharton's Duct, looks like "frogs belly"

Necrotizing Sialolith

A benign condition of the salivary glands characterized by moderately painful swelling and ulceration in the affected area.

Alveolar Osteitis (Dry Socket)

Post operative complication of tooth extraction; usually mandibular 3rd molars. Blood clot breaks down and is lost before healing has taken place. PAIN, BAD ODOR OR TASTE, tooth socket appears empty and bone surface exposed.

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