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Terms in this set (102)
What Is Motivation?
From the Latin word movere - to move
• Motivation is the activation and direction of behavior
• Motivation has the following components: What do you want to do? (direction) How important is it to you? (intensity) Will you continue despite obstacles? (persistence)
• Motivation is a major problem facing contemporary
organizations (and individuals in and outside of work)
What Is Theories of Motivation?
What Is Content theories of Motivation?
Focus on the importance of work itself and the specific needs that activate and direct behavior.
- Achievement motivation theory
- Needs-hierarchy theory
- Motivator-hygiene (two-factor) theory
- Job characteristics theory
What Is Process theories?
Deal with the cognitive processes we use in making decisions and choices about our work (indirect)
What Is Achievement Motivation Theory (McClelland - 1961)?
- Emphasizes the need to accomplish something, to do a
good job, and/or to be the best
- Three major characteristics of those with high need for
• Want to assume responsibility for solving problems
• Tend to take calculated risks and set moderate, attainable goals
• Need continuing recognition and feedback so they will know
how well they are doing
What IsNeeds Hierarchy Theory (Maslow -1970)?
Human needs are arranged in a strict hierarchy of importance. Once we satisfy our lower-order needs, we can pay
attention to our higher-level needs: Physiological, Safety, Belonging/love, Esteem, and Self-actualization
What Is Motivator-Hygiene Theory (Herzberg - 1966)?
• Often referred to as the two-factor theory
• Explains work motivation and job satisfaction in terms
of job duties and features of the workplace
• Meeting Motivator needs produces satisfaction
• Failure to meet Hygiene needs produces dissatisfaction
• Job enrichment is an effort to expand jobs to increase
the opportunity to satisfy motivator needs
• Motivator needs, Hygiene needs, Job Enrichment
What is Motivator needs?
internal to the work and include responsibility, achievement, recognition, advancement, career development, and growth. Challenging work leads to satisfaction, but its absence does not necessarily lead to job dissatisfaction- rather it leads to a Lack of Satisfaction...
What Is Hygiene needs?
• external to the job tasks: e.g company policy, supervision, interpersonal relations, working conditions, salary, etc.
• When hygiene needs are not met, the result is dissatisfaction; when they are met, the result is an absence of dissatisfaction
• Job enrichment is an effort to expand the scope of the job to give employees a greater role in planning, performing, selecting and evaluating their work
What Is Job Enrichment?
• Remove some management controls and make people
responsible for their work, Create complete work units where possible, Provide regular feedback, and Encourage employees to take on new tasks or become experts
in old ones
• The goals of job enrichment are to increase personal
growth, fulfill needs for achievement and provide
What Is Job Characteristics Theory (Hackman & Oldham - 1976)?
Elements of Job Redesign
• Form larger work units from smaller, specialized tasks
• Arrange tasks in meaningful work units to make the worker
responsible for an identifiable unit
• Give workers responsibility for direct contact with clients and
• Give workers control over tasks (tactical not strategic!)
• Arrange for workers to regularly learn how well they are
performing on the job
What IS The Process Theories of Motivation?
Valence-instrumentality-expectancy theory (VIE)
What Is Expectancy Theory (Vroom - 1964)?
•Valence-instrumentality-expectancy theory (VIE) states that people make choices based on their expectations that certain rewards will follow from certain behaviors
• Employees will perform at the level that gives the greatest payoff or benefit
•The worth of the reward varies individually
• Effort = expectancy x instrumentality x valence
•Valence, Instrumentality, and Expectancy
What Is Expectancy?
Employees must decide whether they expect job behaviors
to have a high probability of leading to a particular outcome
What Is Instrumentality?
Employees must determine whether that outcome will be
instrumental in leading to other outcomes
What Is Valence?
Employees must decide whether those outcomes have sufficient psychological value to motivate them to behave in a certain way
What Is The Equity Theory (Adams - 1965)?
•Work motivation is influenced by our perceptions of fairness of treatment
•We "calculate" the ratio of our outcome to input and compare it with what we believe are the ratios of our co-workers
• Experience inequity if we get less than others
•In presence of inequity we are motivated to do something to
• Three response patterns to inequity: Benevolent, Equity sensitive, and Entitled
What Is An Example of Equity Relations?
What Is Entitled?
People believe that everything they receive is their just due
What Is Equity Sensitive?
Believe everyone should be fairly rewarded
What Is Benevolent?
Satisfied when they are under-rewarded compared with co-workers
What Is The Goal-Setting Theory (Locke - 1968)?
Level of motivation on the job is determined by individual desire to achieve a particular goal
Goal represents what we intend to do at given time in the future
Setting specific and moderately difficult goals can motivate our behavior
Warning: Difficult goals may stimulate our motivation to achieve at the expense of other behaviors (Examples?)
Individual goal commitment
What Is Individual goal commitment?
the strength of our determination to reach our goal
Goal commitment is influenced by - External factors: authority, peer influence, and external rewards; Interactive factors: competition and the opportunity to participate in setting goals; Internal factors: self-administered rewards, expectations of success, need for achievement, type-A behavior, self-esteem, internal locus of control
What Is Job Satisfaction?
• Positive and negative feelings and attitudes about our job
• Most frequently studied IV in I-O Psychology
• In a survey of police, Carlan (2007) found satisfaction to be related to: Opportunity to make a contribution to society, Good pay, Adventure and excitement, Autonomy on the job, Respect from peers, and Job security
• Job satisfaction influences psychological well-being both before and after retirement (Wang, 2007)
• There is a positive and reciprocal relationship between job and life
satisfaction - but which direction?
What Is The Gallup Poll of Job Satisfaction?
• A single measure of job satisfaction does not identify those areas of specific satisfaction or dissatisfaction
• Need to better examine what questions are asked and to which population
• Satisfaction varies with specific with job facets (e.g., promotion policy vs. interest in work)
• Only 10-13 % of workers say they are dissatisfied with their jobs (Do you believe them?)
• Satisfaction varies with industry and type of job (duh)
• Organizations with more satisfied workers appear to perform a little better but correlation is weak- Why?
What Are The Characteristics Of Job Satisfaction?
• Age - positive relationship
• Sex - no clear difference
• Race - whites generally more satisfied than
• Cognitive ability - depends on education and challenge
• Job experience - positive relationship
• Use of skills - increase with use of more skills
• Job congruence - positive relationship
• Organizational justice - positive relationship
• Personality - varies with different Big 5 factors
• Job control - positive relationship
• Occupational level - positive relationship
How Does Losing Your Job Effect You?
• No job satisfaction without a job
•Job loss is stressful....Japanese refer to layoffs as kubi kiri - beheading
• Those losing higher level jobs suffer more from unemployment
• Many feel personal sense of betrayal
•Job loss after 50 doubles chance of stroke or heart attack
• Finding a new position helps counteract the negative effects unless there is dissatisfaction with the new job
• Decrease in organizational commitment among survivors (But weakly related to performance
•Job insecurity results in lower organizational commitment, increased stress and health issues, particularly for those with high job involvement
What Can Impact Job Behaviors?
• There is a sometimes a significant positive relationship between job satisfaction and productivity THIS IS NOT THE CASE IN GENERAL
• High job satisfaction is related to prosocial behavior, that is, helpful behaviors directed at customers, co-workers, (and even!) supervisors (Several studies link prosocial behavior to high job performance and productivity (Grant, 2008))
• Counterproductive behavior is most related to dissatisfaction in workers over 30
• Up to 20% of workforce is absent any given day
• Job satisfaction is negatively related to absenteeism and turnover
• There is less absenteeism and turnover in jobs that require a high level of creativity, challenge, complexity, and autonomy
• Turnover is not always harmful
• Functional turnover occurs when poor employees quit their
• Dysfunctional turnover occurs when good employees quit
What Is Perceived Pay Equity?
•Perceived equity or fairness of pay may be more important than the pay level!
•Higher pay satisfaction related to better
•We develop personal standards of comparison of what we consider acceptable
• Research indicates that pay satisfaction decreases with perceived increase in pay of co-workers (2008)
What Is Merit Pay?
• Merit pay systems pay higher performing workers more than
less productive workers
• Widespread disagreement among managers about the
behaviors that should be important in pay decisions
• Supervisors who themselves receive ample pay raises tend
to recommend higher raises for subordinates (However, supervisors low in self-esteem may also provide high raises for fear of retribution)
• Merit pay seems to work better when the output is
What Is Job Involvement?
• Job involvement is the intensity of a personʼs psychological identification with the job
• Job involvement is related to personal characteristics, job
characteristics and social factors
• Older workers and employees who work in teams are
• Those workers with growth needs are more involved
with enriched jobs
• High job involvement related to higher job satisfaction
and lower turnover and absenteeism
How Can A Bad Boss Can Ruin Your Day?
• As many as 7 out of 10 managers may be:
• Incompetent, exploiting, domineering, irritable, and untrustworthy
• Refuse to delegate authority
• Have poor decision-making skills
• About 75% of American workers believe that the worst and most stressful aspect of their jobs is their boss
• Part of problem is "Peter Principle"
What is "Scientific" Management?
• Early 20th century philosophy, associated with F. W. Taylor
• Concerned with increasing productivity - workers regarded as extensions of the machines they operated
• Goddard: People with low intelligence should be supervised by people of greater intelligence (in what universe?!?)
• "Workers are little above the child [and] must be told what to do and shown how to do it"
Human Relations Approach
• Arose in the 1920's with the Hawthorne Studies, which focused attention on workers instead of production
• The Hawthorne experiments trained leaders to allow workers to set their own pace, to form social groups, and to solicit worker's opinions
• Workers treated as people, not cogs in a machine
What Is Theory X and Theory Y (McGregor - 1960)?
Formal expression of scientific management and human relations
approaches to leadership
What Is Theory X?
Assumes people are lazy, dislike work, and must be led and
directed. It is compatible with scientific management and bureaucracy
What Is Theory Y?
Assumes that people find satisfaction in their work and
function best under a participatory leader. It is compatible
with human relations and MBO
What Is Theories of Leadership?
Effective leadership depends on the interaction of:
1. The traits and behaviors of the leaders
2. The characteristics of the followers
3. The nature of the situation in which the leadership occurs.
Theories Of Leadership:
• Contingency theory
• Path-Goal theory
• Leader-member exchange (LMX)
What Is Contingency Theory (Fiedler - 1978)?
• Leadership effectiveness is determined by the interaction between the leader's personal characteristics and the situation
• Leaders are classified as Person-oriented, or Task-oriented
• Leader style cannot change. If a mismatch exists,
must either change leader or situation
• Which type will be more effective depends on the leader's degree of situational control
• Control depends on relationship between leader/followers,
the degree of task structure, and the leader's authority(position power)
• Criticisms include most of research was in the lab; Fiedler
offered in response the cognitive resource theory
What Is A Task-Oriented Leader?
leader will be effective in extremely favorable or extremely unfavorable situations
What Is A Person-Oriented Leader?
leader will be more effective in moderately favorable situations
What Is Path-Goal Theory (House - 1971)?
• Focuses on the kinds of leader behaviors that allow
subordinates to achieve personal and organizational goals
• Four leadership styles can be adopted to facilitate
employee attainment of goals: Directive, Supportive, Participative, and Achievement-oriented
• The most effective leadership style depends on the
situation and the characteristics of the subordinates
• Requires leader flexibility
• Directive style works best with unskilled workers
• Supportive leadership works best with highly
• Theory is difficult to test and operationalize
What Is Leader-Member Exchange (LMX)
• Focuses on how the leader-follower relationship affects
the leadership process
• Subordinates are of 2 types: in-group + out-group
• Leaders use supervision with out-group employees, and
leadership with in-group members
• Leaders and in-group members establish personal relationships leading to mutual support and understanding
• High-LMX relationship groups tends to outperform low-LMX relationship groups
• 2 Types of leader
employees are viewed by the leader as competent, trustworthy and highly motivated
employees are viewed as incompetent, untrustworthy, and poorly motivated
What are the 2 Types of Leadership?
What are the 2 Types of Subordinates?
What is Supervision based on?
What is Leadership based on?
What is Implicit Leadership Theory (Lord & Maher - 1993)?
• Defines leadership from the standpoint of the persons being led
• Each person develops an implicit theory or image of the ideal leader based on experience
• Fit with image determines whether we perceive our boss as a good or bad leader
• No objective criteria; a leader is a good leader if she or he meets our expectations
• Usefulness of theory in workplace yet to be determined (but don't hold your breath...)
What are the Leadership Styles?
What is authoritarian leadership?
When leaders make all the decisions and tell followers
what to do. Works best when situations require rapid and efficient
What is democratic leadership?
Leaders and followers discuss problems and make decisions jointly
What is transactional leadership?
• Identify the needs of their followers and give rewards in exchange for performance
• Consistent with Path-goal theory: transactional leader sets goals and expectations, reward effort and provide feedback
• Focus is on increasing efficiency of established routines and procedures
• Best suited to an established organization vs. an organization in flux (which ones aren't in flux?!)
• Not constrained by their followers' perceptions but are free to "transform" their followers' views
• They challenge and inspire with a sense of purpose and excitement
• They create a vision and communicate it while accepting feedback and suggestions
• Score high on extroversion and agreeableness
What are the 3 components of transactional leadership?
• Charismatic leadership
• Individualized consideration
• Intellectual stimulation
What is Charismatic leadership?
• Communicate a vision to followers
• Can misuse their power over others
• Characterized by broad knowledge of the field; a self-promoting personality; high energy; and willigness to take risks
What are the types of power?
• Formal Organizational or Position power
• Personal power
What are the types of Formal Organizational or Position power?
What are the types of personal power?
What are the uses of power?
• Research has shown these types of leadership power to be effective, in order: 1. Expert; 2. Legitimate; and 3. Referent
• High and mid-level leaders show a great personal need for power
• Need for power higher in effective managers
• The most effective managers do not seek power for personal gain, but for organizational goals
What is the Pygmalion Effect?
a self-fulfilling prophecy in which managers' expectations about their employees' job performance can influence that performance. Based on the story of Pygmalion, King of Cyprus, who carved an ivory statue of his ideal woman...and then fell in love with it!
What are the functions of leadership?
• Based on the Ohio State Studies of the late 1940's, leadership functions grouped into two dimensions
Leadership behaviors that involve sensitivity to the feelings of subordinates
Leadership behaviors concerned with organizing, defining, directing work of subordinates
What is the successful 1st line for supervisors?
• Supportive, helpful, willing to defend subordinates
• Democratic, with frequent meetings
• Flexible, allowing subordinates to accomplish goals their own way
• Describe themselves as coaches rather than directors
• Emphasize quality, provide clear directions, and give timely feedback
Who are Successful Managers and Executives?
• Less people-oriented and more work-oriented
• College attendance is important
• Major and grades predict promotion rates
• Networking and the Ivy League
• High leadership motive pattern (McClelland, 1975)
• High need for power and achievement
• Low need for affiliation
• Considerable self-control
• Greater need to influence people than to be liked
• Good at self-promotion and acquiring the sponsorship of a mentor
What makes Unsuccessful Executives?
• Typically fail because of personality factors rather than job
• Tend to be lacking in consideration behaviors - insensitive,
arrogant, and aloof
• Abrasive and domineering leadership style
• Flaws in thinking (Sternberg, 2003)
• Unrealistic optimism
• Omniscience and Omnipotence
What are some problems for mid-level managers?
• Lack of influence in formulating company policy
• Insufficient authority and resources to carry out that policy
• Obsolete due to participative management
• Employee participation in decision making is a source of stress
• Massive layoffs and downsizing mean fewer promotion
What are some problems for top executive?
report stress from intense commitment of time
and energy to organization
What are some changes for women in management?
• At every level, women are generally paid less for same work
• In a study of recent MBA graduates and current MBA students,
Ellin (2004) found:
• 57% of male MBAs negotiated salary vs. 7% of female MBAs
• Negotiations resulted in average $4,500 increase in pay
• 70% of male MBA students felt they deserved higher pay than other applicants, whereas 70% of female students felt they should receive the same pay
• 85% of males felt it was their responsibility to get the organization to pay them what they were worth vs. only 17% of female MBAs. Most females
felt they were worth what the organization decided to pay them
What are some changes for women in management?
• Perceived obstacles women
• Persistence of male stereotypes
• Lack of fit with corporate culture
• Exclusion from informal networks
• Difficulty getting some assignments (relocation bias)
• May have to work harder or meet higher standards
• Women's success more often attributed to external
conditions than personal ability
What are some changes for women in management?
• Women are rated more effective in situations requiring
mentoring, rewarding & supporting; men rated more
effective at delegation, inspiration and problem solving
• Women exhibiting stereotypically male behaviors seen
as "too tough"or "unfeminine" rather than competent
• Research suggests that women are perceived as more "leader-like" than in past, not equal yet (2006)Discuss!
• Men and women receive equal mentoring (Progress!)
• Job satisfaction (Eddelston, Veiga, & Powell, 2006)
• Women prefer socio-emotional satisfiers (e.g. sensitivity to job
relationships) vs. men who want status-based satisfiers (e.g.,
confirm their authority)
What are the challenges for minorities in management?
• Despite increasing numbers, minorities still face stereotyping and unique challenges
• Minority women have fewer management opportunities than minority men
• They noted lack of mentors and networking opportunities
as barriers to advancement
• Most "minority managers" are black+ current I-O research reflects that (Minority is an old school term!)
What are the three major characteristics of people who have a need to achieve?
1. They favor a work environment in which they are able to assume responsibility for solving problems.
2. They tend to take calculated risks, and to set moderate, attainable goals.
3. They need continuing recognition and feedback on their progress so that they know how well they're doing.
What is the content theories of motivation?
It focuses on the importance of the work itself and the challenges, growth opportunities, and responsibilities work provided for employees.
What is the achievement motivation theory?
(need for achievement) a characteristic of successful executives. This desire to accomplish something, to do a good job,and to be the best typifies many people, nit only business leaders. Studies show a positively high correlation between the achievement scores of executives + the financial success of their companies. Managers that are in the need to achieve display more respect for their subordinates.
What are the 2 types of goals that can satisfy the need to achieve?
Example of achievement motivation theory:
In a study of 170 employees of an energy company in the Netherlands, researchers showed that employees with a strong mastery orientation were more effective on the job than those with a strong performance orientation. Also, those with a high mastery orientation established higher quality leader-member exchanges (LMXs).
What are the 3 dimensions of achievement motivation that are important in high-tech jobs?
level of difficulty of controlling the task
What are the 5 levels of need in Maslows Hierarchy of Needs (Starting w/ the lowest level of needs)?
Psychological - basic human needs (water, air, + sleep)
Safety - shelter, security, + stability
Belonging/Love - social needs (love, affection, friendship, + affiliation)
Esteem - self-esteem, admiration, + respect
Self-Actualization - self-fulfillment + reaching full potential
It has received little research support + is judged to have low scientific validity + applicability. Its complexity makes it difficult to test empirically.
It's produced by the hygiene needs, which is related to the promotion + maintenance of health.
external to the tasks of a particular job + involve features of the work environment, such as company policy, supervision, interpersonal relations, working conditions, + salary/benefits.
Ways of enriching a job:
1. Remove some management controls over employees and increase their accountability + responsibility for their work.
2. Create complete or natural work units where possible
3. Provide regular + continuous feedback on productivity + job performances directly to employees instead of through their supervisors.
4. Encourage employees to take on new/challenging tasks + to become experts in a particular task or operation.
What are the core job characteristics?
Jobs can be redesigned to maximize which characteristics?
- Combine small, specialized tasks to form larger work units; this enhances skill variety + task identity.
- Arrange tasks in natural, meaningful work units to make the worker responsible for an identifiable unit; this enhances task identity + task significance.
- Give workers responsibility for direct contact with clients or end users; this enhances skill variety, autonomy, + feedback.
- Give workers authority, responsibility, + control over the job tasks; this increases skill variety, task identity, task significance, + autonomy.
- Arrange for workers to learn regularly how well they're performing the job; this increases feedback.
Job Diagnostic Survey -JDS (Hackman & Oldham)
developed to measure 3 aspects of the Job-Characteristic Theory:
1. employees' perception of the job characteristics
2. employees' level of growth need
3. employees' job satisfaction
Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy (VIE) Theory:
asserts that people make choices based on their perceived expectancy that certain rewards will follow if they behave in a certain way. Employees will choose to perform at the level that results in the greatest payoffs/benefits. They will work hard if they expect this effort to lead to positive outcomes such as promotions or pay raise.
What are the 3 facets of the VIE theory?
1. Employees must decide whether they expect certain job behaviors to have a high probability of leading to a particular outcome - expectancy.
2. Employees must determine whether that outcome will lead to other outcomes - instrumentality
3. Employees must decide whether those outcomes have sufficient value to motivate them to behave a certain way - valence
How can setting goals help people?
setting specific + challenging performance goals can motivate + guide behavior, spurring people to perform in more effective ways. Research has shown that having goals leads to better performance than not having goals. Specific goals are more powerful motivating forces than general goals. Goals that're difficult to attain are greater motivators than goals that're easy to attain.
What is individual goal commitment?
It's defined in the terms of the strength of a person's determination to reach a goal.
What are the 3 factors that effect goal commitment?
What are personal factors that can influence job satisfaction?
family + other realtionships
What are 2 popular attitude tests that help measure job satisfaction?
Job Descriptive Index (JDI)
Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ)
contains scales to measure 5 job factors: pay, promotion, supervision, the nature of work, + the characteristics of one's co-workers.
rating scale for various levels of satisfaction + dissatisfaction, ranging from "very satisfied" to "very dissatisfied". It covers 20 job facets including advancement, independence, recognition, social status, + working conditions.
Personal Characteristics + Job Satisfaction:
Use of Skills
Job Satisfaction + On-The-Job Behavior:
Prosocial + Counterproductive Behavior
Wage-Incentive Pay Systems
Primary pay scheme for production workers.Through time-+-motion analysis of a production job,an average or standard # of units produced in a given time can be determined.
Types of Organizational Commitment:
affective/attitude - employee internalizes w/ the companies values + attitudes, complies w/ the demands.
behavioral/continuance - employee is bound to the organization only by peripheral factors.
Normative Factors - a sense of obligation to stay w/ the employeer
In the Contingency Theory, what are the 3 factors that control is contingent on?
1. relationship between leader + followers
2. the degree of task structure
3. the leader's authority or position power`
In Path -Goal Theory, what are the 4 styles that leaders can adapt to facilitate employee attainment of goals?
Directive - employees are told what to do + how to do it
Supportive - leaders show concern + support for subordinates
Participative - leaders allow employees to participate in decisions that affect work
Achievement -Oriented - leaders set challenging goals for employees + emphasize high levels of job perfprmance
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