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174 terms

Psych 420 Days 5-7

STUDY
PLAY
antecedent control procedure
A procedure in which antecedents are manipulated to influence the target behavior. May involve manipulating a discriminative stimulus or cues, establishing operations or response effort for the target behavior or alternative behavior.
functional, nonaversive interventions
Interventions (extinction, differential reinforcement, and antecedent control) that decrease problem behaviors without the use of punishment by modifying the antecedents and consequences that control the behaviors.
functional, nonaversive
Extinction, differential reinforcement, and antecedent control are three _____ interventions for problem behaviors.
1. present the SD or cues
2. present an establishing operation
3. decrease response effort
What are three antecedent control procedures you could use to increase the likelihood of a desired response?
1. remove the SD or cues
2. remove an establishing operation
3. increase response effort
What are three antecedent control procedures you could use to decrease the likelihood of an undesirable behavior?
decreasing, increasing
_____ response effort for a behavior will make the behavior more likely, and _____ the response effort for a behavior will make the behavior less likely.
providing attention noncontingently
If a person engages in a problem behavior for attention, how could you eliminate the establishing operation for the behavior?
eliminate an establishing operation
Match the procedure to the description.

-Remove the SD cues
-Eliminate an establishing operation
-Decrease response effort
-Present the SD or cues
-Increase response effort
-Arrange an establishing operation

_____ To eat less at supper, drink a lot of water before supper so you are not as hungry.
Arrange an establishing operation
Match the procedure to the description.

-Remove the SD cues
-Eliminate an establishing operation
-Decrease response effort
-Present the SD or cues
-Increase response effort
-Arrange an establishing operation

_____ To eat more vegetables, buy a dip for the vegetables that tastes great.
decrease response effort OR
present the SD or cues
Match the procedure to the description.

-Remove the SD cues
-Eliminate an establishing operation
-Decrease response effort
-Present the SD or cues
-Increase response effort
-Arrange an establishing operation

_____ To get yourself to floss regularly, leave the floss out on the bathroom counter where you can see it.
decrease response effort OR
present the SD or cues
Match the procedure to the description.

-Remove the SD cues
-Eliminate an establishing operation
-Decrease response effort
-Present the SD or cues
-Increase response effort
-Arrange an establishing operation

_____ To recycle waste paper, put the recycle box on your desk instead of across the room.
remove the SD cues OR
increase response effort
Match the procedure to the description.

-Remove the SD cues
-Eliminate an establishing operation
-Decrease response effort
-Present the SD or cues
-Increase response effort
-Arrange an establishing operation

_____ To eat less candy, take the candy off the kitchen table and put the candy away in the cupboard where you won't see it
contingent observation
A type of nonexclusionary time-out in which, contingent on the occurrence of the problem behavior, the person is removed from a reinforcing activity for a brief time and required to sit and observe other people as they continue to engage in the activity.
exclusionary time-out
A time-out procedure in which the person is briefly removed from the reinforcing environment--typically to another room-- contingent on the occurrence of a problem behavior.
nonexclusionary time-out
A type of time-out procedure in which, contingent on the problem behavior, the person is removed from all sources of reinforcement but is not removed from the room where the problem behavior occurred.
response cost
A negative punishment procedure in which, contingent on a behavior, a specified amount of a reinforcer is removed.
time-out
The loss of access to positive reinforcers for a brief period contingent on the problem behavior.
time-out from positive reinforcement
A type of negative punishment in which, contingent on the occurrence of the problem behavior, the person loses access to positive reinforcers for a brief period. Typically, the person is removed from the reinforcing environment in this procedure.
negative
Time-out and response cost are examples of which type of punishment?
functional, nonaversive
Punishment procedures are typically used in behavior modification only after what procedures have been used first?
negative
If punishment is used in behavior modification, _____ (positive/negative) punishment is more likely to be used.
nonexcluisionary
When Betty hit another child in the kindergarten classroom, she had to sit in a chair off to the side of the classroom for 2 minutes. As a result, she was less likely to hit other children. What type of time-out ill illustrated in this example?
exclusionary
When Betty hit another child in the kindergarten classroom, she had to sit in a chair in the hallway for 2 minutes. As a result she was less likely to hit other children. What type of time-out is illustrated in this example?
extend the time-out period until the child is calm for a brief period of time
What should you do if the child in time-out is engaging in problem behavior at the end of the time-out period?
response cost
_____ is defined as the removal of a specified amount of a reinforcer contingent on the occurrence of the problem behavior.
reinforcement
A(n) _____ procedure should always be used in conjunction with response cost.
extinction, response cost
In a(n) _____ procedure, the reinforcer for the problem behavior is withheld after the behavior, and in a (n) _____ procedure, a reinforcer the person already possesses is removed after the behavior.
tell the person about the loss of the reinforcer or provide a symbolic representation of the loss of the reinforcer
In response cost, if you cannot remove the reinforcer immediately after the problem behavior, what should you do immediately after the problem behavior occurs?
application of aversive activities
A positive punishment procedure in which, contingent on the undesirable behavior, the client is required to engage in an aversive activity (a low-probability behavior) to decrease the future probability of the undesirable behavior.
application of aversive stimulation
...A positive punishment procedure in which an aversive stimulus is delivered contingent on the occurrence of the undesirable behavior to decrease future probability of the undesirable behavior.
contingent exercise
A positive punishment procedure involving the application of aversive activities. Contingent on the problem behavior, the person is required to engage in some form of physical exercise.
guided compliance
A positive punishment procedure used with a person who displays noncompliant behavior. When you make a request and the person refuses to comply, you physically prompt the person to engage in the behavior. the physical prompt is removed as the person complies with the request on his or her own. Guided compliance prevents escape from the requested behavior, and thus also serves as an extinction procedure when the noncompliant behavior is negatively reinforced by escape from the requested activity.
informed consent
The process in which the client is informed of the behavior modification procedure to be used and agrees in writing to undergo the procedure. Necessary for the use of positive punishment procedures.
overcorrection
A positive punishment procedure in which, contingent on the problem behavior, a person is required to engage in effortful activity for a brief period. Positive practice and restitution are two type of this procedure.
physical restraint
A type of positive punishment procedure in which, contingent on the occurrence of the problem behavior, the change agent holds immobile the part of the client's body that is involved in the problem behavior so the the client cannot continue to engage in the behavior.
positive practice
A type of overcorrection procedure i which, contingent on the problem behavior, the client is required to engage in correct forms of the relevant behavior until the behavior has been repeated a number of times.
response blocking
A procedure in which the change agent physically blocks a problem behavior so that the client cannot complete the response. It is often used in conjunction with brief restraint.
restitution
A type of overcorrection procedure in which, contingent on the occurrence of the problem behavior, the client is required to correct the environmental effect of the problem behavior and to bring the environmental condition better than that which existed before the problem behavior.
aversive activities, aversive stimulation
Positive punishment involves the application of _____ or the application of _____.
overcorrection
Restitution and positive practice are two types of ____ procedures.
contingent exercise
In the _____ procedure, the individual has to engage in physical exercise that is unrelated to the problem behavior each time the problem behavior occurs.
positive punishment, negative reinforcement
Guided compliance serves two functions: _____ for the problem behavior because physical guidance is applied and _____ for compliance because physical guidance is withdrawn.
hold the body part involved in the problem immobile for a brief period of time
In the physical restraint procedure, what does the change agent do each time the problem behavior occurs?
shock, lemon juice squirted in the mouth, aromatic ammonia, spray mist facial screening, noise and reprimands
What are two examples of aversive stimuli that have been used in punishment by the application of aversive stimulation?
application, removal
Positive punishment involves the ______ of an aversive stimulus after a behavior to be decreased, and negative reinforcement involves the _____ of an aversive stimulus after the behavior to be increased.
contingent exercise
Match the following procedure to the description:
-restitution
-positive practice
-contingent exercise
-guided compliance
-physical restraint
-response blocking

_____ When a teenager curses at home, he parents make him wash windows for 10 minutes.
guided compliance
Match the following procedure to the description:
-restitution
-positive practice
-contingent exercise
-guided compliance
-physical restraint
-response blocking

_____ Sally screams and cries when her parent asks her to put down her toy and come to the kitchen for supper. In response, her parent takes her hand and physically prompts her to put down the toy and then leads her by the hand to the kitchen.
response blocking
Match the following procedure to the description:
-restitution
-positive practice
-contingent exercise
-guided compliance
-physical restraint
-response blocking

_____ When sally tries to hit her sister, her dad puts his hand in front of Sally's had to prevent her from hitting.
functionally equivalent response
A response that results in the same reinforcing outcome as an alternative response. The response serves the same function as the alternative response.
general case programming
A strategy for promoting generalization that involves the use of multiple training examples (stimulus exemplars) that sample the range of stimulus situations and response variations.
generalization
A process in which the behavior occurs in the presence of antecedent stimuli that are similar in some way to the discriminative stimulus present when the behavior was reinforced. This is also defined as the occurrence of a target behavior in a nontraining situation after training.
natural contingencies of reinforcement
The reinforcement contingency for the behavior of a particular person in the normal course of the person's life.
self-generated mediator of generalization
A behavior that makes it more likely that one will perform the target behavior at the right time.A self-instruction that is used to cue the appropriate behavior at the appropriate time ins an example.
stimulus exemplars
Stimuli that represent the range of relevant stimulus situations in which the response is to occur after training. One strategy for prompting generalization is to train sufficient stimulus exemplars.
generalization
In behavior modification, _____ is defined as the occurrence of the behavior in the presence of all relevant stimuli outside of training.
reinforce
One way to promote generalization is to _____ the behavior when generalization occurs.
natural or target
In the technique of incorporating common stimuli, stimuli fro the _____ environment are incorporated into the training situation to promote generalization.
relevant stimulus situations, relevant responses
General case programming is defined as using multiple training examples that sample the range of _____ and ______.
teaching a range of functionally equivalent responses
What generalization strategy is being used when a trainer teaches the learner a number of different ways to make a correct response?
modify natural contingencies of reinforcement and punishment
Match the strategy to the example.

-reinforce instances of generalization
-train skills that contact natural contingencies of reinforcement
-modify natural contingencies of reinforcement and punishment
-incorporate a wide range of relevant stimulus situations in training.
-incorporate common stimuli
-teach a range of functionally equivalent responses
-incorporate self-generated mediators of generalization

_____ In an attempt to get parents to use the parenting skills they learned in parent training class, the instructor asks the one parent to praise the other when he or she uses the parenting skills correctly at home
incorporate self-generated mediators of generalization
Match the strategy to the example.

-reinforce instances of generalization
-train skills that contact natural contingencies of reinforcement
-modify natural contingencies of reinforcement and punishment
-incorporate a wide range of relevant stimulus situations in training.
-incorporate common stimuli
-teach a range of functionally equivalent responses
-incorporate self-generated mediators of generalization

_____ In an attempt to get parents to use the parenting skills they learned in parent training class, the instructor teaches the parent a simple self-instruction to use at home to prompt the correct use of the parenting skills.
reinforce instances of generalization
Match the strategy to the example.

-reinforce instances of generalization
-train skills that contact natural contingencies of reinforcement
-modify natural contingencies of reinforcement and punishment
-incorporate a wide range of relevant stimulus situations in training.
-incorporate common stimuli
-teach a range of functionally equivalent responses
-incorporate self-generated mediators of generalization

_____ In an attempt to get parents to use the parenting skills they learned in parent training class, the instructor visits the parents' homes and praises them when they use the skills correctly
train skills that contact natural contingencies of reinforcement
Match the strategy to the example.

-reinforce instances of generalization
-train skills that contact natural contingencies of reinforcement
-modify natural contingencies of reinforcement and punishment
-incorporate a wide range of relevant stimulus situations in training.
-incorporate common stimuli
-teach a range of functionally equivalent responses
-incorporate self-generated mediators of generalization

_____ In an attempt to get parents to use the parenting skills they learned in parent training class, the instructor teaches the parents skills to which their children will naturally respond favorably.
incorporate common stimuli
Match the strategy to the example.

-reinforce instances of generalization
-train skills that contact natural contingencies of reinforcement
-modify natural contingencies of reinforcement and punishment
-incorporate a wide range of relevant stimulus situations in training.
-incorporate common stimuli
-teach a range of functionally equivalent responses
-incorporate self-generated mediators of generalization

_____ In an attempt to get parents to use the parenting skills they learned in parent training class, the instructor has the parents bring their children to the session and practice the skills with their children in the session.
behavioral contract
A written document that specifies a particular target behavior for a client and the consequences that will be contingent on the occurrence or nonoccurrence of the behavior in a stated period of time.
controlled behavior
The target behavior that is influenced in a self-management project.
controlling behavior
The use of self-management strategies in which the antecedents and consequences of a target behavior and/or alternative behaviors are modified.
goal-setting
A self management strategy in which the person decides on and writes down the desired level of the target behavior he or she hopes to achieve as a result of self-management procedures.
self-instruction
Self-statements that make it more likely that a target behavior will occur in a specific situation.
self-management
Behavior modification procedures used by a person to change his or her own behavior. In this type of situation, the person engages in a behavior that alters an antecedent or consequence of the target behavior or alternative behavior.
self-praise
Making positive statements to yourself or providing positive evaluations of your own behavior after engaging in an appropriate behavior.
short-circuiting the contingency
Occurs when a person arranges a reinforcer for a target behavior in a self management project, but then takes the reinforcer without first engaging in the target behavior. May also occur when a person arranges a punisher for a target behavior but does not implement the punisher after engaging in the target behavior.
social support
A component of the habit reversal procedure in which a significant other praises the client for correct use of the competing response and prompts the client to use the competing response when the habit behavior occurs. In general, it occurs when significant others are involved in implementing contingencies in the natural environment to help a persona reach a self-management tool.
self-management
_____ is the process of using behavior modification to change your own behavior.
increase, decrease
A person may use self-management procedures to ______ a behavioral deficit or ______ a behavioral excess.
reinforced, reinforced
A behavioral excess typically occurs because it is immediately _____, whereas a behavioral deficit typically does not occur immediately because it is not immediately _____.
present or arrange, decrease
If you want to increase the likelihood of a target behavior, you could _____ an SD or establishing operation for the behavior or _____ response effort for the behavior.
short-circuiting the contingencies
_____ is said to occur when you fail to implement the contingencies that you have written into your behavioral contract.
negatively reinforced
If you arrange a contingency to increase the amount of homework you do, and you have to do 2 hours of homework or you will lose $10, doing homework is _____ by avoiding the loss of money.
punished
If you arrange a contingency in which you lose $10 every time you smoke a cigarette in order to stop smoking, smoking is ______ by the loss of the money.
increase
If you want to ______ a target behavior, you can provide reinforcers for the behavior or eliminate punishers for the behavior.
decrease
If you want to _____ a target behavior, you can provide punishers for the behavior or eliminate reinforcers for the behavior.
it is likely to change the desired direction
What is likely to happen to the target behavior once you start self-monitoring the behavior?
awareness training
A component of the habit reversal procedure in which the person is taught to identify each instance of a particular habit behavior as it occurs.
competing response
An alternative behavior that occurs in place of another target behavior. Typically, the competing response is physically incompatible with the target behavior, so its occurrence competes with the occurrence of the target behavior.
competing response training
A component of the habit reversal procedure in which the client is taught to engage in a competing response contingent on the occurrence of the habit behavior on contingent on the urge to engage in the habit behavior.
diaphragmatic breathing
A type of relaxation exercise in which one engages in slow, rhythmic breathing, using the diaphragm muscle to pull air deep into the lungs.
habit behavior
A repetitive behavior that is distressing to the person. Habit disorders include nervous habits, motor, and vocal tics, and stuttering.
habit disorder
...A repetitive behavior that is distressing to the person. Habit disorders include nervous habits, motor and vocal tics, and stuttering.
habit reversal
A procedure for treating its component procedures including awareness training, competing response training, social support, generalization strategies, and motivational strategies. Research has show that awareness training and competing response training are the most crucial components for treatment effectiveness.
motivation strategy
Part of the habit reversal procedure used to increase the likelihood that the client will use the competing response outside the treatment session to control the habit.
motor tics
Repetitive, jerking movements of a particular treatment sessions to control the habit.
nervous habit
Repetitive, manipulative behaviors that are most likely to occur when a person experience heightened tension. Nervous habits do not typically serve any social function for the individual.
regulated breathing
The competing response that is used in the habit reversal treatment for stuttering.
social support
A component of the habit reversal procedure in which a significant other praises the client for correct use of the competing response and prompts the client to use the competing response when the habit behavior occurs. In general, social support occurs when significant others are involved in implementing contingencies in the natural environment to help a person reach a self management goal.
stuttering
A speech disfluency in which the individual repeats words or syllables, prolongs word sound and/or blocks on a word (makes no sound for a period of time when trying to say a word).
Tourette's disorder
A tic disorder involving multiple motor and vocal tics that have occurred for at least one year.
vocal tic
A repetative vocal sound or word uttered by an individual that does not sureve any communicative function.
habit behaviors
Nervous habits, tics, and stuttering are three types of _____.
throat clearing, coughing or other noises or words
Provide an example of a vocal tic.
word or syllable repetition, prolonging word sounds, or blocking when attempting to speak
What behaviors are involved in stuttering?
awareness training
In the habit reversal procedure, _____ is the treatment component in which the person learns to identify each occurrence of the habit behavior.
competing respo0nse training
In the habit reversal procedure, _____ is the treatment component in which the person learns to engage in an incompatible behavior contingent on the occurrence of the habit.
social support
In the habit reversal procedure, _____ is the treatment component in which significant others help the client use the competing response outside of the therapy session through reminders and reinforcement.
review the inconveniences or embarrassment caused by the habit behavior
In habit reversal, what does the therapist do as a motivational strategy to increase the likelihood that the client will use the competing response outside the treatment session?
punisher
The use of the competing response in habit reversal serves two possible functions. One is to inhibit the habit and provide an alternative behavior to replace it. Alternatively, the competing response may serve as a(n) _____ for the habit behavior.
DRO, response cost, contingent noise, response interruption, brief restraint
Identify two procedures other than habit reversal that may be effective for treating habit disorders.
have her wear something on her hands such as mittens
How might you use response prevention to treat hair-pulling exhibited by a young child while she is in bed at night?
backup reinforcer
Reinforcers used in a token economy. A client receives tokens for a desirable behaviors and exchanges a specified number of tokens for any variety of backup reinforcers.
token
A conditioned reinforcer used in a token economy. The token is something that can be given to another person and accumulated by that person. The token is a conditioned reinforcer because it is given to the person after a desirable behavior and is exchanged for established reinforcers...called backup reinforcers.
token economy
A reinforcement system in which conditioned reinforcers called tokens are delivered to people for desirable behaviors; the tokens are later exchanged for backup reinforcers
token
A(n) _____ is something tangible that can be delivered after each instance of the desired behavior
back-up reinforcers
Clients use their tokens to pay for ______ in a token economy.
pokerr chips, coins, stamps, stickers, check marks, hole punches, etc.
Identify three different items that could be used as tokens in a token economy.
token economy
In a(n) _____, a client earns tokens for desirable behaviors and later exchanges the tokens for backup reinforcers.
don't allow access to the reinforcers except when purchased with tokens
How can you increase the reinforcing value of the backup reinforcers in a token economy?
a specified number of tokens is taken away
When a response cost procedure is used in a token economy, what happens when a undesirable behavior occurs?
the poker chip
Johnny is in a special education classroom. Whenever he answers questions correctly in class, his teacher puts a poker chip into a coffee can he keeps with him. He accumulates poker chips, and at the end of the school day, he uses his poker chips to buy items such as candy, small toys, stickers or time in preferred activities.

In this example, what is the token?
candy, toys, stickers, preferred activities
Johnny is in a special education classroom. Whenever he answers questions correctly in class, his teacher puts a poker chip into a coffee can he keeps with him. He accumulates poker chips, and at the end of the school day, he uses his poker chips to buy items such as candy, small toys, stickers or time in preferred activities.

In this example, what are the backup reinforcers?
answering questions correctly
Johnny is in a special education classroom. Whenever he answers questions correctly in class, his teacher puts a poker chip into a coffee can he keeps with him. He accumulates poker chips, and at the end of the school day, he uses his poker chips to buy items such as candy, small toys, stickers or time in preferred activities.

In this example, what is the target behavior?
continuous reinforcement
Johnny is in a special education classroom. Whenever he answers questions correctly in class, his teacher puts a poker chip into a coffee can he keeps with him. He accumulates poker chips, and at the end of the school day, he uses his poker chips to buy items such as candy, small toys, stickers or time in preferred activities.

In this example, What is the schedule of reinforcement illustrated?
behavioral contract
A written document that specifies a particular target behavior for a client and the consequences that will be contingent on the occurrence or nonoccurence of the behavior in a stated period of time
one-party contract
A behavioral contract in which one person seeks to change a target behavior. The person arranges the contract with a contract manager, who implements the contingency.
parallel contract
A two-party contract in which two people each seek behavior change. Both people specify their behavior to be changed and the consequence for their behavior. However, the contract behaviors and consequences for each party are independent of each other. Contrast the quid pro quo contract, in which the behavior of one party is the reinforcer for the behavior of the other party.
quid pro quo contract
A two-party contract in which two people each specify a behavior that they will change in return for the behavior change of the other person.
rule-governed behavior
Behavior that is controlled by a verbal statement (a rule) about a contingency between the behavior and a consequence.
two-party contract
A type of behavioral contract in which two people both identify behaviors to change and the consequences for the behavior change.
consequences
A behavioral contract identifies on or more target behaviors and the _____ for engaging in or not engaging in the target behavior(s).
1. positive punishment
2. negative punishment
Identify two types of consequences you could implement in a behavioral contract to decrease a target behavior.
the contract manager
In a on-party contract, who implements the contract contingency?
quid pro quo
A(n) _____ contract is a two-party contract in which the behavior change of one party serves as the reinforcer for the behavior change for the other party and vice versa.
parallel
A(n) _____ contract is a two-party contract in which both parties have separate contingencies for their target behaviors.
quid pro quo
What type of contract is illustrated in the following example? (one-party, quid pro quo or parallel)

Martha agrees to mow the lawn each week; in return, Manny agrees to clean both bathrooms each week.
parallel
What type of contract is illustrated in the following example? (one-party, quid pro quo or parallel)

Martha agrees to mow the lawn each week, and if she does, she gets to go bowling on Sunday. Many agrees to clean both bathrooms each week and if he does, he gets to go fishing on Sunday.
one-party
What type of contract is illustrated in the following example? (one-party, quid pro quo or parallel)

Maggie agrees to complete two practice tests each week while studying for the GRE, and if she does, she does not lose the $10 she gave the contract manager to hold.
negative reinforcement
Match the following terms to the description of the contract contingency.

-positive reinforcement
-negative reinforcement
-positive punishment
-negative punishment

_____ Sally agrees to lose 1 pound per week, and if she does, she avoids losing the $10 deposit she gave her weight-loss therapist.
negative punishment
Match the following terms to the description of the contract contingency.

-positive reinforcement
-negative reinforcement
-positive punishment
-negative punishment

_____ Sammy agrees to a contract in which she loses $10 each time she yells at her kids.
anxiety
A term used to describe respondent behavior involving the activation of the autonomic nervous system (including rapid heart rate, shallow rapid breathing, and increased muscle tension). Autonomic arousal is an establishing operation that increases the probability of operant behavior involving escape or avoidance responses. Typically, some event functions as a conditioned stimulus to elicit the autonomic arousal as a conditions=ed response. The operant behavior functions to escape from or avoid the CS.
attention-focusing exercises
A type of anxiety-reduction strategy in which one focuses attention on a pleasant or neutral stimulus to remove attention from the anxiety producing stimulus.
behavioral relaxation training
A type of relaxation training in which one assumes a relaxed posture in all of the major muscle groups of the body to achieve relaxation.
contact desensitization
A form of in vivo desensitization in which the therapist provides reassuring physical contact, such as holding the client's hand or placing a hand on the clients back as the client progresses though the hierarchy.
diaphragmatic breathing
A type of relaxation exercise in which one engages in slow, rhythmic breathing, using the diaphragm muscle to pull air deep into the lungs.
fear
Occurs when a stimulus situation elicits autonomic system arousal and the individual engages in behavior to avoid or escape from the stimulus situation.
fear hierarchy
Used in systematic desensitization or in vivo desensitization procedures. In this technique, various fearful situations are listed in order from least to most fear-provoking. Each new situation in the hierarchy is only slightly more fear-provoking than the previous situation.
in vivo desensitization
A procedure for treating a fear or phobia. the client first learns relaxation. Next the client develops a fear hierarchy in which fear-producing situations are ordered from least to most fear-producing. Finally, the client makes actual contact with the fear-producing situation at each step in the hierarchy in turn while maintaining relaxation as a response that is incompatible with the fear response.
phobia
A fear in which the level anxiety of escape and avoidance behavior is severe enough to disrupt a person's life.
progressive muscle relaxation (PMR)
A relaxation procedure in which the client learns to tense and relax each of the major muscle groups of the body By this means, the client decreases muscle tension and autonomic arousal in the body.
relaxation training
A procedure for teaching a person the skills needed to decrease autonomic arousal (anxiety) by producing an incompatible state of relaxation. Progressive muscle relaxation, diaphragmatic breathing, attention-focused exercises and behavioral relaxation training are types of relaxation training procedures.
systemic desensitization
A procedure used to treat a fear or phobia. the person first learns relaxation. Next, the person develops a hierarchy of fear=producing situations. Finally, the person uses the relaxation procedure as he or she imagines each situation in the hierarchy, starting with the least fear-producing situation and gradually working up to the most fear producing situation. this goal is to replace the fear response with the relaxation response as each situation is imagined.
being in front of an audience, autonomic arousal
In a fear of public speaking, being in front of an audience elicits autonomic arousal. In this example, the conditioned stimulus is _____ and the conditioned response is _____.
increased heart rate and respiration, muscle tension, sweating, queasy stomach
What bodily responses are involved in anxiety?
establishing operation
Autonomic nervous system arousal involved in fear is a(n) _____.
negatively
Escape and avoidance behavior in a feared situation is _____ (positively/negatively) reinforced.
relaxation
_____ procedures are strategies that people use to decrease the autonomic arousal they experience as a component of fear and anxiety problems.
tense and relax each muscle group in the body
What does the person do during the progressive muscle relation procedure to achieve relaxation?
assume relaxed postures
What does the person do during the behavioral relaxation procedure to achieve relaxation?
1. learn relaxation
2. develop the fear hierarchy
3. progress through the hierarchy (relaxing at each step)
What three steps are involved in the use of systematic desensitization?
in vivo
In which type of desensitization does the person have exposure to the actual feared stimulus?
the person is exposed to the full intensity of the feared stimulus
What happens during flooding?
cognitive behavior
Covert verbal or imaginal behavior. Examples include thinking, talking to yourself, imagining specific behaviors or situations, and recalling events of the past. Cognitive behavior is influence by the same environmental variables that influence over behavior.
cognitive behavior modification
Procedures used to help people change some aspect of their cognitive behavior. Includes procedures to help people eliminate undesirable cognitive behaviors (i.e., cognitive restructuring) and procedures to teach people more desirable cognitive behaviors (i.e., cognitive coping skills training)
cognitive coping skills training
A cognitive behavior modification procedure in which the person learns specific self-statements for use tn a problem situation to improve his or her performance on influence his or her behavior. An example is self-instructional training
cognitive restructuring
A cognitive behavior modification procedure in which the client learns to identify thoughts that are distressing and then learns to eliminate those thoughts or to replace them with more desirable thoughts.
cognitive therapy
A type of cognitive restructuring, originally developed y Beck, in which the therapist teaches the client to identify and change his or her distorted thought or self-talk.
self-instructional training
A type of cognitive behavior modification procedure in which the client learns to make specific self-statements that increase the likelihood that a target behavior will occur in a specific situation.
verbal, imaginal
A cognitive behavior may consist of _____ or _____ responses.
conditioned stimulus
A cognitive behavior functions as a(n) _____ when it elicits an unpleasant conditioned response.
coping skills training
Cognitive _____ (restructuring/coping skills training) procedures are used in the case of a behavioral deficit, when a person does not have the cognitive behaviors that are needed to deal with a problem situation.
1.conditioned stimulus
2. discriminatory stimulus
3. establishing operation
Identify two possible antecedent functions of cognitive behavior.
coping skills training
Self-instructional training is a type of cognitive _____ (restructuring/coping skills training) procedure.
helping the client stop thinking the distressing thoughts or start thinking more rational or desirable thoughts
The three steps involved in cognitive restructuring are: (1) to identify the distressing thoughts and situations, (2) identify emotional responses or behaviors that follow the thoughts, and (3) _____.
cognitive distortions
All-or-nothing thinking, overgeneralization, and disqualifying the positive are examples of _____.
1. Where is the evidence?
2. Are there any alternative explanations?
3. What are the implications?
Identify two of the three questions the therapist asks the client to challenge the client's distorted thinking during cognitive therapy.
accept
The goal of acceptance-based therapies is for clients to _____ their negative thoughts and feelings rather than to change them.