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Topic 5: Russia, Central Asia, and the Caucasus: Lesson 2: History of Russia: Text 3: From Communism to Free Enterprise
Terms in this set (27)
Who was Stalin's successor?
Why did the Soviet Union's communist economy and political system weaken?
To compete in the Cold War, the government focused on building new weapons and military vehicles. The government failed to invest in new technologies that would ease people's lives.
What caused the Soviet Union to go into debt to import food and high-technology goods?
State ownership gave farmers little reason to grow more food
What war did the USSR lose during the 1980s, bringing calls for reform?
A war to support a communist government in Afghanistan.
Mikhail Gorbachev (1931- ) was the last leader of the Soviet Union. He led an attempt to reform Soviet government and the Soviet economy. He was unable to prevent the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his leadership in ending Soviet domination of Europe.
What two policies did Gorbachev introduce in 1985?
Glasnost and perestroika
"openness," meant greater freedom of speech and media freedom. Glasnost destroyed the myth that people were living well under communism. It highlighted failures in the country's long war in Afghanistan. Glasnost also forced the government to reveal details about the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident. This accident caused serious health problems and environmental damage.
"restructuring," reduced government control over the economy and provided for freer markets. Also, for the first time, the government allowed non-communist parties to form.
When did Soviet security officials seize power?
What happened after the Soviet security officials seized power?
Within three days, supporters of democracy forced the Soviet officials to back down. At the end of 1991, the Soviet Union officially broke apart, and the Cold War came to an end. All of the former Soviet republics gained independence. The largest of these was Russia.
free enterprise economy
also known as a free market or capitalist economy, an economy in which individual consumers and producers make economic decisions
Who was the first president of Russia?
What happened under Boris Yeltsin?
As the first president of a new Russia, Boris Yeltsin headed a nation on the verge of economic collapse. The sudden shift to a free enterprise economy brought great hardship. Inflation and unemployment soared. A very few individuals gained control of state-owned property. These well-connected individuals, known as oligarchs, held great influence over the politics and economy of Russia.
What was Russia named after the change?
The Russian Federation
Who did Russia fight against in 1994-2005?
Rebels in Chechnya who wanted independence
Vladimir Putin (1952- ) is the president of Russia and has also served as Prime Minister. He has been head of government or head of state continuously since 1999. He was an intelligence officer for the KGB, the Soviet Union's secret police, for 15 years before his entrance into politics. Under Putin's rule, Russia's economy has improved and its power has increased, but the country's government has become less democratic.
When did Yeltsin resign?
When did Putin win the election?
What did Putin do?
Reduced the power of the oligarchy and increased the power of the government
What is different in communist economies compared to Free enterprise economys?
In communist economies, often called command economies, the government makes all or most economic decisions. The government owns most property and businesses, decides what gets produced and distributes goods and services. The Soviet Union had a communist economy.
What is different about free enterprise economies compared to communist economies?
In free enterprise economies, also called capitalist or free market economies, individuals make most economic decisions. Most property and businesses are owned by private individuals or groups. Individuals are free to start businesses and decide what goods or services to produce. Today, the United States and many other countries have economies that are largely based on free enterprise systems.
What are the benefits of the US free enterprise system?
It allows individuals more economic freedom than a communist system, and free enterprise countries usually outperform communist countries according to many ways of measuring economies.
What was the GNP of the Soviet Union in 1990?
What was the US's GNP in 1990?
What happened when Russia moved from communism to free enterprise suddenly to the citizen's standard of living?
Why do many people in Russia struggle due to?
The nation's lingering social, economic, and environmental problems
In a communist economic system, who makes most economic decisions?
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