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ATI TEAS PRACTICE TEST Reading

Terms in this set (159)

1. Bermuda Triangle
THE NEXT FOUR QUESTIONS ARE BASED ON THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE:
The Bermuda Triangle
The area known as the Bermuda Triangle has become such a part of popular culture that it can be difficult to separate fact from fiction. The interest first began when five Navy planes vanished in 1945, officially resulting from "causes or reasons unknown." The explanations about other accidents in the Triangle range from the scientific to the supernatural. Researchers have never been able to find anything truly mysterious about what happens in the Bermuda Triangle, if there even is a Bermuda Triangle. What is more, one of the biggest challenges in considering the phenomenon is deciding how much area actually represents the Bermuda Triangle. Most consider the Triangle to stretch from Miami out to Puerto Rico and to include the island of Bermuda. Others expand the area to include all of the Caribbean islands and to extend eastward as far as the Azores, which are closer to Europe than they are to North America.

The problem with having a larger Bermuda Triangle is that it increases the odds of accidents. There is near-constant travel, by ship and by plane, across the Atlantic, and accidents are expected to occur. In fact, the Bermuda triangle happens to fall within one of the busiest navigational regions in the world, and the reality of greater activity creates the possibility for more to go wrong. Shipping records suggest that there is not a greater than average loss of vessels within the Bermuda Triangle, and many researchers have argued that the reputation of the Triangle makes any accidents seem out of the ordinary. In fact, most accidents fall within the expected margin of error. The Increase in ships from East Asia no doubt contributes to an increase in accidents. And as for the story of the Navy planes that disappeared within the Triangle, many researchers now conclude that it was the result of mistakes on the part of the pilots who were flying into storm clouds and simply got lost.

Which of the following describes this type of writing?
A. Narrative
B. Persuasive
C. Expository
D. Technical
1.
THE NEXT FIVE QUESTIONS ARE BASED ON THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE.
*Read picture first then continue reading below:

... in 1649. Eventually, his son King Charles II would be crowned, and this Charles is believed to have converted secretly to the Catholic Church. Charles II died without a legitimate heir, and his brother James ascended to the throne as King James II.
James was recognized to be a practicing Catholic, and his commitment to Catholicism would prove to e his downfall. James's wife Mary Beatrice lost a number of children during their infancy, and when she became pregnant again in 1687 the public became concerned. If James had a son, that son would undoubtedly be raised a Catholic, and the English people would not stand for this. Mary gave birth to a son, but the story quickly circulated that the royal child had died and the child named James's heir was a foundling smuggled in. James, his wife, and his infant son were forced to flee; and James's Protestant daughter Mary was crowned the queen.
In spite of a strong resemblance to the ing, the young James was generally rejected among the English and the Lowland Scots, who referred to him as "the Pretender." But in the Highlands the Catholic princeling was welcomed. He inspired a group known as Jacobites, to reflect the Latin version of his name. His own son Charles, known affectionately as Bonnie Price Charlie, would eventually raise an army and attempt to recapture what he believed to be his throne. The movement was soundly defeated at the Battle of Culloden in 1746, and England and Scotland have remained ostensibly Protestant ever since.
Which of the following sentences contains an opinion on the part of the author?
A. James was recognized to be a practicing Catholic, and his commitment to Catholicism would prove to be his downfall.
B. James' son King Charles I proved himself to be less committed to the Protestant Church of England.
C. The movement was soundly defeated at the Battle of Culloden in 1746, and England and Scotland have remained ostensibly Protestant ever since.
D. Scholars in the 21st century are far too hasty in dismissing the role of religion in political disputes, but religion undoubtedly played a role in the problems that faced England and Scotland.
2.
THE NEXT FIVE QUESTIONS ARE BASED ON THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE.
*Read picture first then continue reading below:

... in 1649. Eventually, his son King Charles II would be crowned, and this Charles is believed to have converted secretly to the Catholic Church. Charles II died without a legitimate heir, and his brother James ascended to the throne as King James II.
James was recognized to be a practicing Catholic, and his commitment to Catholicism would prove to e his downfall. James's wife Mary Beatrice lost a number of children during their infancy, and when she became pregnant again in 1687 the public became concerned. If James had a son, that son would undoubtedly be raised a Catholic, and the English people would not stand for this. Mary gave birth to a son, but the story quickly circulated that the royal child had died and the child named James's heir was a foundling smuggled in. James, his wife, and his infant son were forced to flee; and James's Protestant daughter Mary was crowned the queen.
In spite of a strong resemblance to the ing, the young James was generally rejected among the English and the Lowland Scots, who referred to him as "the Pretender." But in the Highlands the Catholic princeling was welcomed. He inspired a group known as Jacobites, to reflect the Latin version of his name. His own son Charles, known affectionately as Bonnie Price Charlie, would eventually raise an army and attempt to recapture what he believed to be his throne. The movement was soundly defeated at the Battle of Culloden in 1746, and England and Scotland have remained ostensibly Protestant ever since.
Which of the following is a logical conclusion based on the information that is provided within the passage?
A. Like Elizabeth I, Charles II never married and thus never had children.
B. The English people were relieved each time that James II's wife Mary lost another child, as this printed the chance of a Catholic monarch.
C. Charles I's beheading had less to do with religion than with other political problems that England was facing.
D. Unlike his son and grandsons, King James I had no Catholic leaning and was a faithful follower of the Protestant church of England.
3.
THE NEXT FIVE QUESTIONS ARE BASED ON THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE.
*Read picture first then continue reading below:

... in 1649. Eventually, his son King Charles II would be crowned, and this Charles is believed to have converted secretly to the Catholic Church. Charles II died without a legitimate heir, and his brother James ascended to the throne as King James II.
James was recognized to be a practicing Catholic, and his commitment to Catholicism would prove to e his downfall. James's wife Mary Beatrice lost a number of children during their infancy, and when she became pregnant again in 1687 the public became concerned. If James had a son, that son would undoubtedly be raised a Catholic, and the English people would not stand for this. Mary gave birth to a son, but the story quickly circulated that the royal child had died and the child named James's heir was a foundling smuggled in. James, his wife, and his infant son were forced to flee; and James's Protestant daughter Mary was crowned the queen.
In spite of a strong resemblance to the ing, the young James was generally rejected among the English and the Lowland Scots, who referred to him as "the Pretender." But in the Highlands the Catholic princeling was welcomed. He inspired a group known as Jacobites, to reflect the Latin version of his name. His own son Charles, known affectionately as Bonnie Price Charlie, would eventually raise an army and attempt to recapture what he believed to be his throne. The movement was soundly defeated at the Battle of Culloden in 1746, and England and Scotland have remained ostensibly Protestant ever since.
Based on the information that is provided within the passage which of the following can be inferred about King James II's son?
A. Considering his resemblance to King James II, the young James was very likely the legitimate child of the king and the queen.
B. Given the queen's previous inability to produce a healthy child, the English and the Lowland Scots were right in suspecting the legitimacy of the prince.
C. James "the Pretender" was not as popular among the Highland clans as his son Bonnie Prince Charlie.
D. James was unable to acquire the resources needed to build the army and plan the invasion that his son succeeded in doing.
4.
THE NEXT FIVE QUESTIONS ARE BASED ON THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE.
*Read picture first then continue reading below:

... in 1649. Eventually, his son King Charles II would be crowned, and this Charles is believed to have converted secretly to the Catholic Church. Charles II died without a legitimate heir, and his brother James ascended to the throne as King James II.
James was recognized to be a practicing Catholic, and his commitment to Catholicism would prove to e his downfall. James's wife Mary Beatrice lost a number of children during their infancy, and when she became pregnant again in 1687 the public became concerned. If James had a son, that son would undoubtedly be raised a Catholic, and the English people would not stand for this. Mary gave birth to a son, but the story quickly circulated that the royal child had died and the child named James's heir was a foundling smuggled in. James, his wife, and his infant son were forced to flee; and James's Protestant daughter Mary was crowned the queen.
In spite of a strong resemblance to the ing, the young James was generally rejected among the English and the Lowland Scots, who referred to him as "the Pretender." But in the Highlands the Catholic princeling was welcomed. He inspired a group known as Jacobites, to reflect the Latin version of his name. His own son Charles, known affectionately as Bonnie Price Charlie, would eventually raise an army and attempt to recapture what he believed to be his throne. The movement was soundly defeated at the Battle of Culloden in 1746, and England and Scotland have remained ostensibly Protestant ever since.
Which of the following best describes the organization of the information in the passage?
A. cause-effect
B. chronological sequence
C. problem-solution
D. comparason-contrast
5.
THE NEXT FIVE QUESTIONS ARE BASED ON THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE.
*Read picture first then continue reading below:

... in 1649. Eventually, his son King Charles II would be crowned, and this Charles is believed to have converted secretly to the Catholic Church. Charles II died without a legitimate heir, and his brother James ascended to the throne as King James II.
James was recognized to be a practicing Catholic, and his commitment to Catholicism would prove to e his downfall. James's wife Mary Beatrice lost a number of children during their infancy, and when she became pregnant again in 1687 the public became concerned. If James had a son, that son would undoubtedly be raised a Catholic, and the English people would not stand for this. Mary gave birth to a son, but the story quickly circulated that the royal child had died and the child named James's heir was a foundling smuggled in. James, his wife, and his infant son were forced to flee; and James's Protestant daughter Mary was crowned the queen.
In spite of a strong resemblance to the ing, the young James was generally rejected among the English and the Lowland Scots, who referred to him as "the Pretender." But in the Highlands the Catholic princeling was welcomed. He inspired a group known as Jacobites, to reflect the Latin version of his name. His own son Charles, known affectionately as Bonnie Price Charlie, would eventually raise an army and attempt to recapture what he believed to be his throne. The movement was soundly defeated at the Battle of Culloden in 1746, and England and Scotland have remained ostensibly Protestant ever since.
Which of the following best describes the author's intent in the passage?
A. to persuade
B. to entertain
C. to express feeling
D. to inform
2. The next five questions are based on the following passage:
In the United States, the foreign language requirement for high school graduation is decided at the state level. This means the requirement varies, with some states deciding to forego a foreign language requirement altogether (www.ncssfl.org). It is necessary that these states reconsider their position and amend their requirements to reflect compulsory completion of a course of one or more foreign languages. Studying a foreign language has become increasingly important for the global economy. As technology continues to make international business relations increasing easy, people need to keep up by increasing their communication capabilities. High school graduates with foreign language credits have been shown to have an increased college acceptance rate. In addition, students who have mastered more than one language typically find themselves in greater demand when they reach the job market. Students who did not study a foreign language often find themselves unable to obtain a job at all.
Which of the following statements represents the best summary of the claims made in this passage?
A. Studying a foreign language is important if you want to graduate from high school and get a job.
B. Studying a foreign language is important for the global economy because of the technological advances that have been madden international communicates.
C. Studying a foreign language is important for the global economy, college acceptance rates, and becoming a sought-after candidate in the job market.
D. Studying a foreign language is important for college acceptance rates and obtaining a job after college.
3. The next five questions are based on the following passage:
In the United States, the foreign language requirement for high school graduation is decided at the state level. This means the requirement varies, with some states deciding to forego a foreign language requirement altogether (www.ncssfl.org). It is necessary that these states reconsider their position and amend their requirements to reflect compulsory completion of a course of one or more foreign languages. Studying a foreign language has become increasingly important for the global economy. As technology continues to make international business relations increasing easy, people need to keep up by increasing their communication capabilities. High school graduates with foreign language credits have been shown to have an increased college acceptance rate. In addition, students who have mastered more than one language typically find themselves in greater demand when they reach the job market. Students who did not study a foreign language often find themselves unable to obtain a job at all.
Which of the following statements represents an EXAGGERATED claim in support of the argument presented in the passage?
A. In the United States, the foreign language requirement for high school graduation is decided at the state level.
B. Studying a foreign language has become increasingly important for the global economy.
C. High school graduates with foreign language credits have been shown to have an increased college acceptance rate.
D. Students who did not study a foreign language often find themselves unable to obtain a job at all.
4. The next five questions are based on the following passage:
In the United States, the foreign language requirement for high school graduation is decided at the state level. This means the requirement varies, with some states deciding to forego a foreign language requirement altogether (www.ncssfl.org). It is necessary that these states reconsider their position and amend their requirements to reflect compulsory completion of a course of one or more foreign languages. Studying a foreign language has become increasingly important for the global economy. As technology continues to make international business relations increasing easy, people need to keep up by increasing their communication capabilities. High school graduates with foreign language credits have been shown to have an increased college acceptance rate. In addition, students who have mastered more than one language typically find themselves in greater demand when they reach the job market. Students who did not study a foreign language often find themselves unable to obtain a job at all.
Which of the following would be a useful source of information to determine the validity of the argument presented int his passage?
A. A survey of high school students' preferences with regard to foreign language requirements.
B. A comparison of the correlation between a second language introduced at home and subsequent college acceptance rates.
C. A survey that asks parents to select the foreign language they would like their children to study in high school.
D. A comparison of the correlation between high school students' study of a foreign language and subsequent college acceptance rates.
5. The next five questions are based on the following passage:
In the United States, the foreign language requirement for high school graduation is decided at the state level. This means the requirement varies, with some states deciding to forego a foreign language requirement altogether (www.ncssfl.org). It is necessary that these states reconsider their position and amend their requirements to reflect compulsory completion of a course of one or more foreign languages. Studying a foreign language has become increasingly important for the global economy. As technology continues to make international business relations increasing easy, people need to keep up by increasing their communication capabilities. High school graduates with foreign language credits have been shown to have an increased college acceptance rate. In addition, students who have mastered more than one language typically find themselves in greater demand when they reach the job market. Students who did not study a foreign language often find themselves unable to obtain a job at all.
Which of the following would be the best concluding stamens for this passage?
A. States should consider how important foreign languages are the global economy when making their policies regarding foreign language requirements for graduation from high school
B. Policies regarding a foreign language requirement for graduation from high school should take into account the importance of foreign languages for the global economy and the correlation between foreign languages and increased college acceptance rates and employment opportunities.
C. High school graduation requirements should include a foreign language class because o the influence knowledge of a second language has on college acceptance rates.
D. Policies regarding a foreign language requirement for graduation form high school should take into account how difficult it is to obtain a job in today's economy for those who do not have knowledge of more than one language.
1. The next three questions are based on the following passage:
They were known as "The Five": a group of Russian musicians who eschewed rigidly formal classical training and set out on their own to give a new artistic sound to classical music in Russia. Mily Balakirev and Cesar Cui are considered the founders of the movement, but the three who later joined them have become far more famous and respected outside, and perhaps even inside, of Russia. Modest Mussorgsky, with his passion for themes of Russian folklore and nationalism, is remembered for the pain piece Pictures and an Exhibition, as well as for the passionate opera Boris Godunov. Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, who spend his early years as a naval officer, had a penchant for infusing his works with the sounds of the seas. But, he might be best remembered for the hauntingly beautiful symphonic suite Scheherazade. Alexander Borodin balanced a career as a skilled and highly respected chemist with his interest in classical music. he produced a number of symphonies, as well as the opera Prince Igor. Despite their lack of formal training and their unorthodox approach to producing classical music, The Five had an influence that reached far beyond their time. Composers such as Alexander Glazunov, Sergei Prokofiev, and Igor Stravinsky studied under Rimsky-Korsakov. Additionally, the mid-twentieth century composer Dmitri Shostakovich studied under Glazunov, creating a legacy of musical understanding that persisted well beyond the era of The Five.
Which for the following describes the type of writing used in the passage?
A. narrative
B. persuasive
C. expository
D. technical
2. The next three questions are based on the following passage:
They were known as "The Five": a group of Russian musicians who eschewed rigidly formal classical training and set out on their own to give a new artistic sound to classical music in Russia. Mily Balakirev and Cesar Cui are considered the founders of the movement, but the three who later joined them have become far more famous and respected outside, and perhaps even inside, of Russia. Modest Mussorgsky, with his passion for themes of Russian folklore and nationalism, is remembered for the pain piece Pictures and an Exhibition, as well as for the passionate opera Boris Godunov. Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, who spend his early years as a naval officer, had a penchant for infusing his works with the sounds of the seas. But, he might be best remembered for the hauntingly beautiful symphonic suite Scheherazade. Alexander Borodin balanced a career as a skilled and highly respected chemist with his interest in classical music. he produced a number of symphonies, as well as the opera Prince Igor. Despite their lack of formal training and their unorthodox approach to producing classical music, The Five had an influence that reached far beyond their time. Composers such as Alexander Glazunov, Sergei Prokofiev, and Igor Stravinsky studied under Rimsky-Korsakov. Additionally, the mid-twentieth century composer Dmitri Shostakovich studied under Glazunov, creating a legacy of musical understanding that persisted well beyond the era of The Five.
Which of the following is the best summary sentence for the passage?
A. Composers such as Alexander Glazunov, Sergei Prokofiev, and Igor Stravinsky studied under Rimsky-Korsakov.
B. Despite their lack of formal training and their unorthodox approach to producing classical music, The Five had an influence that reached far beyond their time.
C. They were known as "The Five": a group of Russian musicians who eschewed rigidly formal classical training and set out on their own to give a new artistic sound to classical music in Russia.
D. Mily Balakirev and Cesar Cui are considered the founders of the movement, but the three who later joined them have become far more famous and respected outside, and perhaps even inside, of Russia.
3. The next three questions are based on the following passage:
They were known as "The Five": a group of Russian musicians who eschewed rigidly formal classical training and set out on their own to give a new artistic sound to classical music in Russia. Mily Balakirev and Cesar Cui are considered the founders of the movement, but the three who later joined them have become far more famous and respected outside, and perhaps even inside, of Russia. Modest Mussorgsky, with his passion for themes of Russian folklore and nationalism, is remembered for the pain piece Pictures and an Exhibition, as well as for the passionate opera Boris Godunov. Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, who spend his early years as a naval officer, had a penchant for infusing his works with the sounds of the seas. But, he might be best remembered for the hauntingly beautiful symphonic suite Scheherazade. Alexander Borodin balanced a career as a skilled and highly respected chemist with his interest in classical music. he produced a number of symphonies, as well as the opera Prince Igor. Despite their lack of formal training and their unorthodox approach to producing classical music, The Five had an influence that reached far beyond their time. Composers such as Alexander Glazunov, Sergei Prokofiev, and Igor Stravinsky studied under Rimsky-Korsakov. Additionally, the mid-twentieth century composer Dmitri Shostakovich studied under Glazunov, creating a legacy of musical understanding that persisted well beyond the era of The Five.
Based on the information in the passage, which of the composers among The Five would the author likely agree was the most influential?
A. Alexander Glazunov
B. Modest Mussorgsky
C. Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
D. Cesar Cui
1. The next five questions are based on the following passage.
Stories have been a part of the world since the beginning of recorded time. For centuries before the invention of the printing press, stories of the world were passed down to generations through oral tradition. With the invention of the printing press, which made written material available to wide ranges of audiences, books were mass-produced and introduced into grater society.
For the last several centuries, books have been at the forefront of education and entertainment. With the invention of the Internet, reliance on books for information quickly changed. Soon, almost everything that anyone needed to known could be accessed through the internet. Large printed volumes of encyclopedias became unnecessary as all of the information was easily available on the Internet.
Despite the progression of the Internet, printed media was till very popular int he forms of both fiction and non-fiction books. While waiting for an appointment, enduring a several-hour flight, or relaxing before sleep, books have been a reliable and convenient source of entertainment, and one that society has not been willing to give up.
With the progression and extreme convenience of technology, printed books are going to soon become a thing of the past. Inventions such as the iPad from Macintosh and the Kindle have made the need for any kind offprinted media unnecessary. With a rechargeable battery, a large screen, and the ability to have several books saved on file, electronic options will soon take over and society will no longer see printed books.
Although some people may say that the act of reading is not complete without turning a page, sliding a finger across the screen or pressing a button to read more onto the next page is just as satisfying to the reader. The iPad and Kindle are devices that have qualities similar to a computer and can be sued for so much more than just reading. These devices are therefore better than books because they have multiple uses.
In cultural society that is part of the world and due to long-standing tradition, stories will always be an important way to communicate ideas nd provide information and entrainment. Centuries ago, stories could only be remembered and retold through speech. Printed media changed the way the world communicated and was connected, and now, as we move forward with technology, it is only a matter of time before we must say goodbye to the printed pas and welcome the digital and electronic future.
What is the main argument of this essay?
A. iPad and Kindles are easier to read than book
B. The printing press was a great invention
C. The Internet is how people receive information
D. Technology will soon replace printed material
2. The next five questions are based on the following passage.
Stories have been a part of the world since the beginning of recorded time. For centuries before the invention of the printing press, stories of the world were passed down to generations through oral tradition. With the invention of the printing press, which made written material available to wide ranges of audiences, books were mass-produced and introduced into grater society.
For the last several centuries, books have been at the forefront of education and entertainment. With the invention of the Internet, reliance on books for information quickly changed. Soon, almost everything that anyone needed to known could be accessed through the internet. Large printed volumes of encyclopedias became unnecessary as all of the information was easily available on the Internet.
Despite the progression of the Internet, printed media was till very popular int he forms of both fiction and non-fiction books. While waiting for an appointment, enduring a several-hour flight, or relaxing before sleep, books have been a reliable and convenient source of entertainment, and one that society has not been willing to give up.
With the progression and extreme convenience of technology, printed books are going to soon become a thing of the past. Inventions such as the iPad from Macintosh and the Kindle have made the need for any kind offprinted media unnecessary. With a rechargeable battery, a large screen, and the ability to have several books saved on file, electronic options will soon take over and society will no longer see printed books.
Although some people may say that the act of reading is not complete without turning a page, sliding a finger across the screen or pressing a button to read more onto the next page is just as satisfying to the reader. The iPad and Kindle are devices that have qualities similar to a computer and can be sued for so much more than just reading. These devices are therefore better than books because they have multiple uses.
In cultural society that is part of the world and due to long-standing tradition, stories will always be an important way to communicate ideas nd provide information and entrainment. Centuries ago, stories could only be remembered and retold through speech. Printed media changed the way the world communicated and was connected, and now, as we move forward with technology, it is only a matter of time before we must say goodbye to the printed pas and welcome the digital and electronic future.
What is the main purpose of paragraph 1?
A. to explain oral tradition
B. to explain the importance of the printing press
C. to explain the progressions of stories within society
D. to introduce the essay
3. The next five questions are based on the following passage.
Stories have been a part of the world since the beginning of recorded time. For centuries before the invention of the printing press, stories of the world were passed down to generations through oral tradition. With the invention of the printing press, which made written material available to wide ranges of audiences, books were mass-produced and introduced into grater society.
For the last several centuries, books have been at the forefront of education and entertainment. With the invention of the Internet, reliance on books for information quickly changed. Soon, almost everything that anyone needed to known could be accessed through the internet. Large printed volumes of encyclopedias became unnecessary as all of the information was easily available on the Internet.
Despite the progression of the Internet, printed media was till very popular int he forms of both fiction and non-fiction books. While waiting for an appointment, enduring a several-hour flight, or relaxing before sleep, books have been a reliable and convenient source of entertainment, and one that society has not been willing to give up.
With the progression and extreme convenience of technology, printed books are going to soon become a thing of the past. Inventions such as the iPad from Macintosh and the Kindle have made the need for any kind offprinted media unnecessary. With a rechargeable battery, a large screen, and the ability to have several books saved on file, electronic options will soon take over and society will no longer see printed books.
Although some people may say that the act of reading is not complete without turning a page, sliding a finger across the screen or pressing a button to read more onto the next page is just as satisfying to the reader. The iPad and Kindle are devices that have qualities similar to a computer and can be sued for so much more than just reading. These devices are therefore better than books because they have multiple uses.
In cultural society that is part of the world and due to long-standing tradition, stories will always be an important way to communicate ideas nd provide information and entrainment. Centuries ago, stories could only be remembered and retold through speech. Printed media changed the way the world communicated and was connected, and now, as we move forward with technology, it is only a matter of time before we must say goodbye to the printed pas and welcome the digital and electronic future.
According to the essay, what was the first way that stories were communicated and passed down?
A. oral tradition
B. printed books
C. technology
D. hand writing
4 The next five questions are based on the following passage.
Stories have been a part of the world since the beginning of recorded time. For centuries before the invention of the printing press, stories of the world were passed down to generations through oral tradition. With the invention of the printing press, which made written material available to wide ranges of audiences, books were mass-produced and introduced into grater society.
For the last several centuries, books have been at the forefront of education and entertainment. With the invention of the Internet, reliance on books for information quickly changed. Soon, almost everything that anyone needed to known could be accessed through the internet. Large printed volumes of encyclopedias became unnecessary as all of the information was easily available on the Internet.
Despite the progression of the Internet, printed media was till very popular int he forms of both fiction and non-fiction books. While waiting for an appointment, enduring a several-hour flight, or relaxing before sleep, books have been a reliable and convenient source of entertainment, and one that society has not been willing to give up.
With the progression and extreme convenience of technology, printed books are going to soon become a thing of the past. Inventions such as the iPad from Macintosh and the Kindle have made the need for any kind offprinted media unnecessary. With a rechargeable battery, a large screen, and the ability to have several books saved on file, electronic options will soon take over and society will no longer see printed books.
Although some people may say that the act of reading is not complete without turning a page, sliding a finger across the screen or pressing a button to read more onto the next page is just as satisfying to the reader. The iPad and Kindle are devices that have qualities similar to a computer and can be sued for so much more than just reading. These devices are therefore better than books because they have multiple uses.
In cultural society that is part of the world and due to long-standing tradition, stories will always be an important way to communicate ideas nd provide information and entrainment. Centuries ago, stories could only be remembered and retold through speech. Printed media changed the way the world communicated and was connected, and now, as we move forward with technology, it is only a matter of time before we must say goodbye to the printed pas and welcome the digital and electronic future.
Which of the following statements is an opinion?
A. Despite the progression of the Internet, printed media was still very popular in the forms of both fiction and non-fiction books
B. Although some people may say that the act of reading is not complete without turning a page, sliding a finger across the screen or pressing a button to read more onto the next page is just as satisfying to the reader
C. with the invention of the Internet, reliance on books for information quickly changed
D. stories have been a part of the world since the beginning of recorded time
5. The next five questions are based on the following passage.
Stories have been a part of the world since the beginning of recorded time. For centuries before the invention of the printing press, stories of the world were passed down to generations through oral tradition. With the invention of the printing press, which made written material available to wide ranges of audiences, books were mass-produced and introduced into grater society.
For the last several centuries, books have been at the forefront of education and entertainment. With the invention of the Internet, reliance on books for information quickly changed. Soon, almost everything that anyone needed to known could be accessed through the internet. Large printed volumes of encyclopedias became unnecessary as all of the information was easily available on the Internet.
Despite the progression of the Internet, printed media was till very popular int he forms of both fiction and non-fiction books. While waiting for an appointment, enduring a several-hour flight, or relaxing before sleep, books have been a reliable and convenient source of entertainment, and one that society has not been willing to give up.
With the progression and extreme convenience of technology, printed books are going to soon become a thing of the past. Inventions such as the iPad from Macintosh and the Kindle have made the need for any kind offprinted media unnecessary. With a rechargeable battery, a large screen, and the ability to have several books saved on file, electronic options will soon take over and society will no longer see printed books.
Although some people may say that the act of reading is not complete without turning a page, sliding a finger across the screen or pressing a button to read more onto the next page is just as satisfying to the reader. The iPad and Kindle are devices that have qualities similar to a computer and can be sued for so much more than just reading. These devices are therefore better than books because they have multiple uses.
In cultural society that is part of the world and due to long-standing tradition, stories will always be an important way to communicate ideas nd provide information and entrainment. Centuries ago, stories could only be remembered and retold through speech. Printed media changed the way the world communicated and was connected, and now, as we move forward with technology, it is only a matter of time before we must say goodbye to the printed pas and welcome the digital and electronic future.
What is a secondary argument the author makes?
A. devices such as the iPad or Kindle are better than books because they have multiple uses
B. books are still important to have while waiting for an appointment or tang a flight
C. printed encyclopedias are still used and more convenient that using the Internet
D. with technology, there will soon be no need for stories
1. The next four questions are based on the following passage:
Starting in 1856, Alfred, Lord Tennyson began publishing his compilation of Arthurian legends that became known as Idylls of the King. these poems were based on the earlier medieval collection Le More of Arthur, by Sir Thomas Malory, which dated to the middle of the 15th century. Malory's work, which is believed to be largely a translation of older French stories, was written in prose style. It combine date earlier tales into a single grouping for English readers. As the title suggests, Malory's focus was largely on the epic nature of Arthur's life. Malory also included chapters on knights such as Lancelot and Gareth, and he discussed the relationships between Tristan and Isolde, and Lancelot and Guinevere. Instead of embracing the romance angle, however, Malory focused more on the moral elements within these stories.
Tennyson, though heavily influenced by Malory, took a different approach to the Arthurian stories. For one, he wrote them in poetry form, not prose. Additionally, Tennyson, as a Victorian poet, was more interested in the romantic qualities of the stories, and included the distinct elements of nature and elegy. Idylls of the King has a softer focus overall. For Instance, in Malory's work, Guinevere faces execution for her adultery, and is only spared when Lancelot rides in to rescue her. In Tennyson's work, Arthur chooses to forgive Guinevere, and she chooses to spend the rest of her days doing good works in a convent. some literary scholars believe that Tennyson was writing an allegory about social problems and the need for social justice that existed during Tennyson's own time. Charles Dickens is remembered for doing the same thing in his novels about the abuses of lower-class children in Victorian England.
Which of the following describes the structure of the above passage?
A. problem-solution
B. sequence
C. comparison-contrast
D. cause-effect
2. The next four questions are based on the following passage:
Starting in 1856, Alfred, Lord Tennyson began publishing his compilation of Arthurian legends that became known as Idylls of the King. these poems were based on the earlier medieval collection Le More of Arthur, by Sir Thomas Malory, which dated to the middle of the 15th century. Malory's work, which is believed to be largely a translation of older French stories, was written in prose style. It combine date earlier tales into a single grouping for English readers. As the title suggests, Malory's focus was largely on the epic nature of Arthur's life. Malory also included chapters on knights such as Lancelot and Gareth, and he discussed the relationships between Tristan and Isolde, and Lancelot and Guinevere. Instead of embracing the romance angle, however, Malory focused more on the moral elements within these stories.
Tennyson, though heavily influenced by Malory, took a different approach to the Arthurian stories. For one, he wrote them in poetry form, not prose. Additionally, Tennyson, as a Victorian poet, was more interested in the romantic qualities of the stories, and included the distinct elements of nature and elegy. Idylls of the King has a softer focus overall. For Instance, in Malory's work, Guinevere faces execution for her adultery, and is only spared when Lancelot rides in to rescue her. In Tennyson's work, Arthur chooses to forgive Guinevere, and she chooses to spend the rest of her days doing good works in a convent. some literary scholars believe that Tennyson was writing an allegory about social problems and the need for social justice that existed during Tennyson's own time. Charles Dickens is remembered for doing the same thing in his novels about the abuses of lower-class children in Victorian England.
The author of the passage notes several distinctions between Tennyson and Malory. Which of the following is not identified as a difference between the two authors?
A. Malory wrote pose, while Tennyson wrote poetry.
B. Malory wrote during the medieval era, while Tennyson wrote during the Victorian era.
C. Malory was more focused on heroism and morality, while Tennyson was more focused on nature and elegy.
D. Malory wrote stories about Gareth, Tristan, and Isolde, while Tennyson focused only on Arthur, Lancelot, and Guinevere.
3. The next four questions are based on the following passage:
Starting in 1856, Alfred, Lord Tennyson began publishing his compilation of Arthurian legends that became known as Idylls of the King. these poems were based on the earlier medieval collection Le More of Arthur, by Sir Thomas Malory, which dated to the middle of the 15th century. Malory's work, which is believed to be largely a translation of older French stories, was written in prose style. It combine date earlier tales into a single grouping for English readers. As the title suggests, Malory's focus was largely on the epic nature of Arthur's life. Malory also included chapters on knights such as Lancelot and Gareth, and he discussed the relationships between Tristan and Isolde, and Lancelot and Guinevere. Instead of embracing the romance angle, however, Malory focused more on the moral elements within these stories.
Tennyson, though heavily influenced by Malory, took a different approach to the Arthurian stories. For one, he wrote them in poetry form, not prose. Additionally, Tennyson, as a Victorian poet, was more interested in the romantic qualities of the stories, and included the distinct elements of nature and elegy. Idylls of the King has a softer focus overall. For Instance, in Malory's work, Guinevere faces execution for her adultery, and is only spared when Lancelot rides in to rescue her. In Tennyson's work, Arthur chooses to forgive Guinevere, and she chooses to spend the rest of her days doing good works in a convent. some literary scholars believe that Tennyson was writing an allegory about social problems and the need for social justice that existed during Tennyson's own time. Charles Dickens is remembered for doing the same thing in his novels about the abuses of lower-class children in Victorian England.
Which of the following sentences distracts the reader from the main focus of the passage?
A. Malory's work, which is believed to be largely a translation of older French stories, was written in prose style.
B. Instead of embracing the romance angle, however, Malory focused more on the moral elements within these stories.
C. In Tennyson's work, Arthur chooses to forgive Guinevere, and she chooses to spend the rest of her days doing good works in a convent.
D. Charles Dickens is remembered for doing the same thing in his novels about the abuses of lower-class children in Victorian England.
4. The next four questions are based on the following passage:
Starting in 1856, Alfred, Lord Tennyson began publishing his compilation of Arthurian legends that became known as Idylls of the King. these poems were based on the earlier medieval collection Le More of Arthur, by Sir Thomas Malory, which dated to the middle of the 15th century. Malory's work, which is believed to be largely a translation of older French stories, was written in prose style. It combine date earlier tales into a single grouping for English readers. As the title suggests, Malory's focus was largely on the epic nature of Arthur's life. Malory also included chapters on knights such as Lancelot and Gareth, and he discussed the relationships between Tristan and Isolde, and Lancelot and Guinevere. Instead of embracing the romance angle, however, Malory focused more on the moral elements within these stories.
Tennyson, though heavily influenced by Malory, took a different approach to the Arthurian stories. For one, he wrote them in poetry form, not prose. Additionally, Tennyson, as a Victorian poet, was more interested in the romantic qualities of the stories, and included the distinct elements of nature and elegy. Idylls of the King has a softer focus overall. For Instance, in Malory's work, Guinevere faces execution for her adultery, and is only spared when Lancelot rides in to rescue her. In Tennyson's work, Arthur chooses to forgive Guinevere, and she chooses to spend the rest of her days doing good works in a convent. some literary scholars believe that Tennyson was writing an allegory about social problems and the need for social justice that existed during Tennyson's own time. Charles Dickens is remembered for doing the same thing in his novels about the abuses of lower-class children in Victorian England.
With which of the following statements would the author of the passage most likely agree?
A. Malory and Tennyson shaped their approach to the Arthurian legends based on the defining qualities other respective eras.
B. Because Le Morte d'Arthur is more of a translation than a literacy creation, Idylls of the King is a superior work.
C. By undermining the moral qualities that Malory highlighted, Tennyson failed to appreciate the lager purpose of the stories in a medieval context.
D. Ultimately, Malory's influence on Tennyson was minimal, because Tennyson took a different approach and infused his poems with the mood of his day.
1. The next four questions refer to the following passage.

Tips for Eating Calcium Rich Foods
Diary: Beverage
- Include milk as a beverage at meals.
* Consider choosing fat-free or low-fat milk.
- Whole milk: consider a gradual shift to fat-free milk to lower saturated fat and calories.
Start with reduced fat (2%), then low-fat (1%), and finally fat-free (skim).
- Cappuccinos or lattes: ask for them with fat-free (skim) milk.
Diary: Meals
- Oatmeal and hot cereals: Try adding fat-free or low-fat milk instead of water
- Use fat-free or low-fat milk when making condensed cream soups (e.g., cream of tomato)
- Shredded low-fat cheese with casseroles, soups, stew, or vegetables
- Fat-free or low-fat yogurt with a baked person
Diary: Snack
- Have fat-free or low-fat yogurt as a snack.
* Make a dip for fruits or vegetable from yogurt.
* Make fruit-yogurt smoothes in the blender.
Diary: Dessert
- Chocolate or butterscotch pudding with fat-free or low-fat milk.
- Cut-up fruit with flavored yogurt for a quick dessert.
Non-Diary Products:
- Lactose Intolerance
* Lactose-free alternatives within the milk group (e.g., cheese, yogurt, or lactose-free milk)
* Consume the enzyme lactose before consuming milk products.
- Personal choice to avoid diary:
* Calcium fortified juices, cereals, breads, and soy or rice beverages
* Canned fish (sardines, salmon with bones) soybeans and other soy products, some other dried beans, and some leafy greens.
What test feature does the author use to organize the passage?
A. heading and subheadings
B. superscripts
C. diagrams
D. labels and footnotes
2. The next four questions refer to the following passage.

Tips for Eating Calcium Rich Foods
Diary: Beverage
- Include milk as a beverage at meals.
* Consider choosing fat-free or low-fat milk.
- Whole milk: consider a gradual shift to fat-free milk to lower saturated fat and calories.
Start with reduced fat (2%), then low-fat (1%), and finally fat-free (skim).
- Cappuccinos or lattes: ask for them with fat-free (skim) milk.
Diary: Meals
- Oatmeal and hot cereals: Try adding fat-free or low-fat milk instead of water
- Use fat-free or low-fat milk when making condensed cream soups (e.g., cream of tomato)
- Shredded low-fat cheese with casseroles, soups, stew, or vegetables
- Fat-free or low-fat yogurt with a baked person
Diary: Snack
- Have fat-free or low-fat yogurt as a snack.
* Make a dip for fruits or vegetable from yogurt.
* Make fruit-yogurt smoothes in the blender.
Diary: Dessert
- Chocolate or butterscotch pudding with fat-free or low-fat milk.
- Cut-up fruit with flavored yogurt for a quick dessert.
Non-Diary Products:
- Lactose Intolerance
* Lactose-free alternatives within the milk group (e.g., cheese, yogurt, or lactose-free milk)
* Consume the enzyme lactose before consuming milk products.
- Personal choice to avoid diary:
* Calcium fortified juices, cereals, breads, and soy or rice beverages
* Canned fish (sardines, salmon with bones) soybeans and other soy products, some other dried beans, and some leafy greens.
Which of the following is true abut calcium rich foods?
I. Canned salmon with bones contains calcium.
II. Cheese is a lactose-free food.
III. Condensed soup made with water is a calcium rich food.
A. I only
B. I and II only
C. II and III only
D. III only
3. The next four questions refer to the following passage.

Tips for Eating Calcium Rich Foods
Diary: Beverage
- Include milk as a beverage at meals.
* Consider choosing fat-free or low-fat milk.
- Whole milk: consider a gradual shift to fat-free milk to lower saturated fat and calories.
Start with reduced fat (2%), then low-fat (1%), and finally fat-free (skim).
- Cappuccinos or lattes: ask for them with fat-free (skim) milk.
Diary: Meals
- Oatmeal and hot cereals: Try adding fat-free or low-fat milk instead of water
- Use fat-free or low-fat milk when making condensed cream soups (e.g., cream of tomato)
- Shredded low-fat cheese with casseroles, soups, stew, or vegetables
- Fat-free or low-fat yogurt with a baked person
Diary: Snack
- Have fat-free or low-fat yogurt as a snack.
* Make a dip for fruits or vegetable from yogurt.
* Make fruit-yogurt smoothes in the blender.
Diary: Dessert
- Chocolate or butterscotch pudding with fat-free or low-fat milk.
- Cut-up fruit with flavored yogurt for a quick dessert.
Non-Diary Products:
- Lactose Intolerance
* Lactose-free alternatives within the milk group (e.g., cheese, yogurt, or lactose-free milk)
* Consume the enzyme lactose before consuming milk products.
- Personal choice to avoid diary:
* Calcium fortified juices, cereals, breads, and soy or rice beverages
* Canned fish (sardines, salmon with bones) soybeans and other soy products, some other dried beans, and some leafy greens.
What information should the author include to help clarify information in the passage?
A. The fat content of yogurt.
B. How much calcium is in fortified juice.
C. Which left greens contain calcium.
D. The definition of lactose intolerance.
4. The next four questions refer to the following passage.

Tips for Eating Calcium Rich Foods
Diary: Beverage
- Include milk as a beverage at meals.
* Consider choosing fat-free or low-fat milk.
- Whole milk: consider a gradual shift to fat-free milk to lower saturated fat and calories.
Start with reduced fat (2%), then low-fat (1%), and finally fat-free (skim).
- Cappuccinos or lattes: ask for them with fat-free (skim) milk.
Diary: Meals
- Oatmeal and hot cereals: Try adding fat-free or low-fat milk instead of water
- Use fat-free or low-fat milk when making condensed cream soups (e.g., cream of tomato)
- Shredded low-fat cheese with casseroles, soups, stew, or vegetables
- Fat-free or low-fat yogurt with a baked person
Diary: Snack
- Have fat-free or low-fat yogurt as a snack.
* Make a dip for fruits or vegetable from yogurt.
* Make fruit-yogurt smoothes in the blender.
Diary: Dessert
- Chocolate or butterscotch pudding with fat-free or low-fat milk.
- Cut-up fruit with flavored yogurt for a quick dessert.
Non-Diary Products:
- Lactose Intolerance
* Lactose-free alternatives within the milk group (e.g., cheese, yogurt, or lactose-free milk)
* Consume the enzyme lactose before consuming milk products.
- Personal choice to avoid diary:
* Calcium fortified juices, cereals, breads, and soy or rice beverages
* Canned fish (sardines, salmon with bones) soybeans and other soy products, some other dried beans, and some leafy greens.
The style of this passage is most like that found in a(n)
A. tourist guidebook
B. health textbook
C. encyclopedia
D. friendly letter
1. The next two questions are based on the following information.
Announcement for all faculty members:
It has come to the university's attention that there is crowding in the faculty canteen between the hours of 11 a.m. and 1 p.m., an issue that is due to the increase in staff numbers in several faculty departments. A number of faculty members have complained that hey stood in line so long that they were unable to get lunch, or did not have time to eat lunch. to offset the crowding, the university has polled the various departments about schedules, and has settled on a recommended rooster for when the members of each department should visit the faculty canteen for lunch:
- Business Dept: 10:30 a.m. - 11:30 a.m.
- Art Dept: 10:45 a.m. - 11:45 a.m.
- Math and Science Dept: 12 p.m. - 1 p.m.
- Social Sciences Dept: 12:30 p.m. - 1:30 p.m.
- Humanities Dept: 1 p.m. - 2 p.m.
We ask that all faculty members respect this schedule. Faculty will be expected to display a department badge before entering the canteen for lunch.
Based on the information in the announced, what might the reader assume abut how the university determined the lunch schedule?
A. The university arranged the schedule alphabetically, according to the name of each department.
B. The university checked with the departments in advance to make sure faculty members would be amendable to the charge.
C. The university checked to see when the most faculty members from each department would be entering the canteen.
D. The university was mot concerned about crowding int he canteen, and simply decided to establish different times for each department.
1. The next four questions are based on the following passage.
How are Hypotheses Confirmed?
Most scientists agree that while the scientific method is an invaluable methodological tool, it is not a failsafe method for arriving at object ruth. It is a debatable, for example, whether a hypothesis can actually be confirmed by experience.
When a hypothesis is of the form "All x and y," it is commonly believed that a piece of evidence that is both x and y confirms the hypothesis. For example, for the hypothesis "All monkeys are hairy," a particular monkey that is hairy is thought to be a confirming piece of evidence for the hypothesis. A problem arises when one encounters evidence that disproves a hypothesis: while no scientist would argue that one piece of evidence proves a hypothesis, it is possible for one piece of evidence to disprove a hypothesis. To return to the monkey example, one hairless monkey out of one billion hairy monkeys disproves the hypothesis "All monkeys are hairy." Single pieces of evidence then, seem to affect to given hypothesis in radically different ways. For this reason, the confirmation of hypotheses is better described as probabilistic.
Hypotheses that can only be proven or disproven based on evidence need to be based on probability because sample sets for such hypotheses are too large. Int eh monkey example, every single monkey in the history of monkeys would need to be examined before the hypothesis could be proven or disproven. By making confirmation a function of probability, one may make provisional or working conclusions the tallow for the possibility of given hypothesis being disconfirmed in the future. Int he monkey case, then, encountering a hairy monkey would slighting rise the probability that "all monkeys are hairy," while encountering a hairless monkey would slightly decrease the probability that "all monkeys are hairy." This method of confirming hypotheses is both counterintuitive and controversial, but it allows for evidence to equitably affect hypotheses and it does not require infinite sample sets for confirmation or disconfirmation.
What is the main idea of the second paragraph?
A. One hairy monkey proves the hypothesis "All monkeys are hairy."
B. The same piece of evidence can both confirm and disconfirm a hypothesis.
C. Confirming and disconfirming evidence affect hypotheses differently.
D. The scientific method is not a failsafe method for arriving at objective truth.
2. The next four questions are based on the following passage.
How are Hypotheses Confirmed?
Most scientists agree that while the scientific method is an invaluable methodological tool, it is not a failsafe method for arriving at object ruth. It is a debatable, for example, whether a hypothesis can actually be confirmed by experience.
When a hypothesis is of the form "All x and y," it is commonly believed that a piece of evidence that is both x and y confirms the hypothesis. For example, for the hypothesis "All monkeys are hairy," a particular monkey that is hairy is thought to be a confirming piece of evidence for the hypothesis. A problem arises when one encounters evidence that disproves a hypothesis: while no scientist would argue that one piece of evidence proves a hypothesis, it is possible for one piece of evidence to disprove a hypothesis. To return to the monkey example, one hairless monkey out of one billion hairy monkeys disproves the hypothesis "All monkeys are hairy." Single pieces of evidence then, seem to affect to given hypothesis in radically different ways. For this reason, the confirmation of hypotheses is better described as probabilistic.
Hypotheses that can only be proven or disproven based on evidence need to be based on probability because sample sets for such hypotheses are too large. Int eh monkey example, every single monkey in the history of monkeys would need to be examined before the hypothesis could be proven or disproven. By making confirmation a function of probability, one may make provisional or working conclusions the tallow for the possibility of given hypothesis being disconfirmed in the future. Int he monkey case, then, encountering a hairy monkey would slighting rise the probability that "all monkeys are hairy," while encountering a hairless monkey would slightly decrease the probability that "all monkeys are hairy." This method of confirming hypotheses is both counterintuitive and controversial, but it allows for evidence to equitably affect hypotheses and it does not require infinite sample sets for confirmation or disconfirmation.
A synonym for disconfirmed would be:
A. proven
B. dissipated
C. distilled
D.. disproven
3. The next four questions are based on the following passage.
How are Hypotheses Confirmed?
Most scientists agree that while the scientific method is an invaluable methodological tool, it is not a failsafe method for arriving at object ruth. It is a debatable, for example, whether a hypothesis can actually be confirmed by experience.
When a hypothesis is of the form "All x and y," it is commonly believed that a piece of evidence that is both x and y confirms the hypothesis. For example, for the hypothesis "All monkeys are hairy," a particular monkey that is hairy is thought to be a confirming piece of evidence for the hypothesis. A problem arises when one encounters evidence that disproves a hypothesis: while no scientist would argue that one piece of evidence proves a hypothesis, it is possible for one piece of evidence to disprove a hypothesis. To return to the monkey example, one hairless monkey out of one billion hairy monkeys disproves the hypothesis "All monkeys are hairy." Single pieces of evidence then, seem to affect to given hypothesis in radically different ways. For this reason, the confirmation of hypotheses is better described as probabilistic.
Hypotheses that can only be proven or disproven based on evidence need to be based on probability because sample sets for such hypotheses are too large. Int eh monkey example, every single monkey in the history of monkeys would need to be examined before the hypothesis could be proven or disproven. By making confirmation a function of probability, one may make provisional or working conclusions the tallow for the possibility of given hypothesis being disconfirmed in the future. Int he monkey case, then, encountering a hairy monkey would slighting rise the probability that "all monkeys are hairy," while encountering a hairless monkey would slightly decrease the probability that "all monkeys are hairy." This method of confirming hypotheses is both counterintuitive and controversial, but it allows for evidence to equitably affect hypotheses and it does not require infinite sample sets for confirmation or disconfirmation.
Which of the following is true of hypotheses of the form "All x and y"?
A. Something that is neither x nor y disproves the hypothesis.
B. Something that is both x and y disproves the hypothesis.
C. Something that is x but not y disproves the hypothesis.
D. Something that is y but not x disproves the hypothesis.
4. The next four questions are based on the following passage.
How are Hypotheses Confirmed?
Most scientists agree that while the scientific method is an invaluable methodological tool, it is not a failsafe method for arriving at object ruth. It is a debatable, for example, whether a hypothesis can actually be confirmed by experience.
When a hypothesis is of the form "All x and y," it is commonly believed that a piece of evidence that is both x and y confirms the hypothesis. For example, for the hypothesis "All monkeys are hairy," a particular monkey that is hairy is thought to be a confirming piece of evidence for the hypothesis. A problem arises when one encounters evidence that disproves a hypothesis: while no scientist would argue that one piece of evidence proves a hypothesis, it is possible for one piece of evidence to disprove a hypothesis. To return to the monkey example, one hairless monkey out of one billion hairy monkeys disproves the hypothesis "All monkeys are hairy." Single pieces of evidence then, seem to affect to given hypothesis in radically different ways. For this reason, the confirmation of hypotheses is better described as probabilistic.
Hypotheses that can only be proven or disproven based on evidence need to be based on probability because sample sets for such hypotheses are too large. Int eh monkey example, every single monkey in the history of monkeys would need to be examined before the hypothesis could be proven or disproven. By making confirmation a function of probability, one may make provisional or working conclusions the tallow for the possibility of given hypothesis being disconfirmed in the future. Int he monkey case, then, encountering a hairy monkey would slighting rise the probability that "all monkeys are hairy," while encountering a hairless monkey would slightly decrease the probability that "all monkeys are hairy." This method of confirming hypotheses is both counterintuitive and controversial, but it allows for evidence to equitably affect hypotheses and it does not require infinite sample sets for confirmation or disconfirmation.
Using the same reasoning as that in the passage, an automobile with eighteen wheels does what to the following hypothesis: "All automobile have only four wheels"?
A. It proves the hypothesis.
B. It raises the hypothesis's probability.
C. It disproves the hypothesis.
D. It decreases the hypothesis's probability.