Chapter 10 Quiz
Terms in this set (24)
A policy of spreading more political power to more people. Removal of most property ownership requirements, more "common men" elected, contentious elections, elected officials often used public policy to benefit themselves, but women and people of color still excluded. The Democratic part, led by Andrew Jackson, appealed to the new body of voters by stressing the belief in rotation in office, economy in government, governmental response to popular demands and decentralization of power.
A type of political party organization that relies heavily on material inducements, such as patronage, to win votes and to govern.
Alexis de Tocqueville
He wrote a two-volume "Democracy in America" that contained insights and pinpointed the general equality among people. He wrote that inequalities were less visible in America than France.
Election of 1824
No one won a majority of electoral votes, so the House of Representatives had to decide among Adams, Jackson, and Clay. Clay dropped out and urged his supporters in the House to throw their votes behind Adams. Jackson and his followers were furious and accused Adams and Clay of a "corrupt bargain."
This was popular in the Midwest and Northeast, South disliked tariffs and feared increased role of national government. Because of its dependence on agricultural plantations and slave labor, the South benefited least from the era of internal improvements. Internal improvements referred to transportation projects such as roads and canals. Henry Clay believed that new transportation links would promote trade and unite the various sections of the country. This system called for tariffs to protect domestic industries and fund internal improvements, strengthen National Bank, control credit and provide uniform currency.
The practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs. Jackson made this practice famous for the way he did it on a wide scale.
Tariff of Abominations
The tariffs passed between 1816 and 1828 were the first tariffs in American history whose primary purpose was protection. Supported by Jackson and Van Buren. This forced John C. Calhoun to formulate his doctrine of nullification.
Developed by John C. Calhoun, the doctrine of nullification drew heavily on the states' rights arguments advanced in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. In the Webster-Hayne Debate, Danial Webster forcefully rejected nullification. Jackson's opposition to nullification enhanced his reputation as a strong President.
The South Carolina Exposition and Protest
Calhoun argued that a state can refuse to recognize an act of Congress that it considers unconstitutional.
Jackson vigorously opposed the bill to re-charter the Second Bank of the United States (BUS). Jackson believed that the bank was a bastion of special privileges. He argued that the BUS was beneficial to advocates of "hard money" and thus inimical to the interests of the common people who elected him. Jackson supported the removal of federal deposits from the BUS and established "petbanks". Jackson's attack on the BUS caused an expansion of credit and speculation. The number of state banks, each issuing its own paper currency, increased. This war on the BUS was an important catalyst for the emergence of a competitive two-part system. The Whigs hated Jackson and supported Henry Clay and his American System.
The Specie Circular
A law signed by Jackson requiring Federal land to be purchased with specie (hard currency, gold or silver) rather than paper money. This was a primary cause of the Panic of 1837.
Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal Policy
Gold was discovered on Indian lands but they weren't willing to sell their land. Andrew Jackson allowed their removal. Many Indians argued that they were an independent nation inside the state and that they had been promised their land for being "civilized." The Cherokees eventually sued the government but although Marshall declared that they could stay, Jackson refused to enforce it (he said, "ok you enforce it!"). This prompted all Cherokees to be removed to Oklahoma on the Trail of Tears, an arduous trek which had a high cost of lives.
Indian Removal Act
This law was opposed by Protestants in the North, created "Indian Territory" in present day Oklahoma and Kansas. Promised land and money to those who gave up their land claims East of the Mississippi River.
Five Civilized Tribes
Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw. Agrarian tribes of the south. Were seen as civilized because they had somewhat assimilated because they established settled agricultural societies and had good relations with white. Until the Removal act, they all resisted but only the Seminole ended up staying.
Black Hawk War
Sauk and Fox refused to move from Illinois (part of the Indian Removal Act). Therefore, Jackson sent federal troops and forced their removal west of the Mississippi.
Worcester v. Georgia
The Cherokees differed from other Native American tribes in that the Cherokees tried to mount a court challenge to a removal order. In this case, the United States Supreme Court upheld the rights of the Cherokee tribe to their tribal lands.
Trail of Tears
Jackson's Native American policy resulted in the removal of the Cherokee from their homeland to settlements across the Mississippi River. Refers to the route taken by Native Americans as they were relocated to the Indian Territory of Oklahoma. Approximately one-quarter of the Cherokee people died during this route.
Decisions that un-did Marshall decisons in favor of states' rights. Ex: Charles River Bridge Co. v. Warren Bridge Co; charter does not equal monopoly. Mayor of New York v. Miln; gave NY the right to screen immigrants for diseases. Briscoe v. Bank of Kentucky; allowed the state owned Bank of KY the right to issue "currency" despite the Constitution (Article 1, section 10) that prohibited states from issuing "bills of credit".
Is a political ideology, a branch of liberalism, which advocates civil liberties and political freedom with limited government under the rule of law and generally promotes a laissez-faire economic policy.
A limited government role in the economy.
A coalition of hatred for "King Andrew" more than ideals. This party supported legislated morality, temperance, attracted evangelical Protestants. Working Men's Parties also formed: voiced artisan republicanism. Key Whig figures include: (1) Daniel Webster: men in politics should be of ability and wealth, but based on talent, not birth (2) Henry Clay: American System, tariffs, did not see class conflict, only the prosperity of the growing middle class (3) John C. Calhoun: all about states' rights, believed factory owners and slave owners shared a common foe-the working class of enslaved blacks and property-less whites.
Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks ("petbanks") received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
After Tyler, the Democrats gained power and used this form of politcs: voting across ethnic and religious lives. The Democrats represented equal rights, state's rights, and cultural liberty.
Refers to the presidential election of 1824 in which Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, convinced the House of Representatives to elect Adams rather than Jackson.
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