39 terms

APES Chapter 3 - Ecosystem

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Terms in this set (...)

ecosystem
particular location on Earth distinguised by mix of interaction of biotic and abotic things
producer/autotroph
an organism uses energy of the sun to produce usable forms of energy
photosynthesis
producers use solar energy to convert CO2 and H2O into glucose --> potential energy used wide range of organisms
cellular respiration
process that unlocks the chemical energy stored in the cells of organisms
consumer/heterotroph
an organism that must obtain its energy by consuming other organisms
primary consumer
an individual incapable of photosynthesis, must obtain energy by consuming other organisms
secondary consumer
a carnivore that eats primary consumers
tertiary consumer
a carnivore that eats secondary consumers
trophic levels
levels in the feeding structure by organisms - higher levels consume from lower levels
food chain
sequence of consumption from producers thru tertiary consumers
food web
a complex model of how energy and matter more between trophic levels
scavengers
carnivore that consumes dead animals
detritivores
an organism that specializes in breaking down dead tissues and waste products into smaller particles
decomposers
fungi or bacteria that recycle nutrients from dead tissues and wastes back into the ecosystem
Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)
the total amount of solar energy that producers in an ecosystem capture via. photosynthesis over a given amount of time
Net Primary Productivity (NPP)
the energy occupied by producers in an ecosystem minus the energy producers respire
biomass
total mass of all living matter in a specific area
standing crop
amount of biomass present in an ecosystem at a particular time
Ecological Efficiency
proportion of consumed energy that can be passed from one trophic level to another
Trophic pyramid
a representation of the distribution of biomass, numbers or energy among trophic levels
Biosphere
the region of our planet where life resides the combo of all ecosystem on Earth
Biogeochemical cycle
the movements of matter within and btwn ecosystems
Hydrologic cycle
the movement of water through the biosphere
Transpiration
the release of water from leaves during photosynthesis
Evapotranspiration
the combined amount of evaporation and transpiration
Runoff
water that moves across the land surface and into streams and rivers
Macronutrients
the six elements that organisms need in relatively large amounts:nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium,magnesium and sulfur
Limiting nutrient
a nutrient required for the growth of an organism but available in a lower quantity than other nutrients
Nitrogen fixation
a process by which some organisms can convert nitrogen gas molecules directly into ammonia
Legumes
a plant
Leaching
the transportation of dissolved molecules through the soil via groundwater
Watershed
all land in a give landscape that drains into a particular steam, lake, or wetland
Resistance
a measure of how much a disturbance can affect flows of energy and matter in an ecosystem
Resilience
the rate at which an ecosystem returns to its original state after a disturbance
Restoration ecology
the study and implementation of restoring damaged ecosystems
Immediate disturbance hypothesis
the ecosystem experiencing intermediate levels of disturbance are more diverse than those with high or low disturbance levels
Instrumental value
something that has worth as an instrument or a tool that can be used to accomplish a goal
Intrinsic Value
that it has worth independent of any benefit it may provide to humans - moral value of an animals life cannot be quantified
Provisions
good that humans can use directly