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Craniofacial Lecture 1: Oral Cavity (1/4/2021)
Terms in this set (73)
Where is the oral cavity proper located?
Behind the dental arches
Lips mark the transition between _____________ & _______ ______________.
Skin & Oral Mucosa
Lips are held together by two lateral ______ ______________________.
What muscle is known as an elliptical muscle that surrounds the lips and is responsible for movement of the lips?
Cupid's Bow (Lips)
Philtrum of the upper lip
The lips are delineated by this border...
When viewing the structures of the lips from a sagittal section what visual cues can be used to identify the side inside the oral cavity vs. outside the oral cavity?
Inside Oral Cavity: Hair follicles absent, mucous glands with ducts present, thicker epidermis
Outside Oral Cavity: Hair follicles/sebaceous glands/sweat glands present, thinner epidermis
What is the name of the area that precedes the oral cavity proper and is located on the backside of teeth?
List the components of the oral cavity from superficial to deep.
Oral mucosa -> submucosa-> supporting structures
What are the two main components that make up the oral mucosa?
Stratified squamous epithelium & Lamina Propria (CT that contains vasculature)
List the 3 different types of mucosa
Lining mucosa, masticatory mucosa, specialized mucosa
Lining mucosa is found...
on the lips, mouth floor, cheeks, soft palate
Masticatory mucosa is found...
on the hard palate and alveolar ridges
Specialized mucosa is found...
on the dorsal surface of the tongue
Characteristics of lining mucosa
Few/short Connective Tissue Papilla with epithelial projections
Stratified squamous epithelium, Non-keratinized
~ 60% of the oral mucosa
Anchored via hemidesmosomes
Characteristics of masticatory mucosa
Many tall rete pegs separated by CTP
Stratified squamous epithelium, Para-keratinized or Ortho-keratinized
~25% of the oral mucosa
What types of cells are associated with masticatory mucosa?
Merkel cells: touch & pressure
Lymphocytes/Langerhans Cells: immune system
Characteristics of specialized mucosa
Non-keratinized, ~15% of oral mucosa
T/F: Lamina Propria has vasculature.
What are the components of the submucosa?
Connective tissue, glands, adipocytes
What are the supporting structures?
Cementum, bone, muscle
Mucoperiosteum differs from oral mucosa in that it lacks ______________.
Mucoperiosteum is found in what regions?
Gingiva & parts of the hard palate
T/F: Lamina propria has bundles of collagen and elastin.
T/F: Mucoperiosteum contains a thin layer of adipocytes and lacks a real submucosa.
T/F: The epithelial layer is vascularized.
FALSE - it is not vascularized! Instead, it is supplied by the lamina propria
Which cells are associated with the oral cavity/mucosa?
Stratified squamous epithelium
Half-desmosomes; they anchor epithelial cells to basal lamina
This structure attaches epithelial cells and is known as the interface between epithelial cells and CT Lamina Propria...
This type of epithelium has living cells with nuclei on the surface
This type of epithelium has dead cells with no nuclei on the surface
Oral mucosa vs. Integument (Skin)
Compared to integument (skin), the oral mucosa is characterized by:
- deeper color, dependent on epithelial thickness
- more moist/smooth surface
- absence of annexes (no sweat glands, no hair follicle, rare sebaceous glands - Fordyce Spots)
Rare sebaceous glands, typically found at the angles of the mouth
What are the 4 layers of keratinized epithelium?
(From deep to superficial)
1. Basal Layer: dark staining cells that serve as stem cells
2. Prickle Cell Layer: appear to have "spines"
3. Granular Intermediate Layer: "Keratohyaline granules" present
4. Keratinized surface layer: layer of dead cells
Fully keratinized, no nuclei on the surface
Surface has nuclei on the surface, partially keratinized
What are the 4 layers of non-keratinized epithelium?
(From deep to superficial)
1. Basal Layer
2. Prickle Cell layer
3. Intermediate layer
4. Surface layer
What is the main type of cell found in masticatory mucosa?
Keratinocytes (non-keratinized cells)
What type of mucosa is the most permeable?
Lining mucosa; this is useful for drug administration
This junction is considered the boundary between non-keratinized (lining mucosa) and keratinized (masticatory mucosa).
The roof of the mouth, or hard palate, is covered with ___________ stratified squamous epithelium and is part of the masticatory mucosa.
The soft palate consists of highly vascularized ___________________ lining mucosa and also has salivary glands.
The dorsal side of the tongue is composed of which type of mucosa?
The ventral side of the tongue is composed of which type of mucosa?
Non-specialized epithelium (held down by frenulum)
What type of epithelium is associated with the tongue?
What are the 4 types of lingual papillae?
- Filiform papillae
- Fungiform papillae
- Foliate papillae
- Circumvallate papillae
Completely keratinized, NO taste buds
Contain taste buds, mushroom shaped
Located on the sides of the tongue, leaf-shaped, contain taste buds
Located behind sulcus terminalis where the tongue transitions into lingual tonsils
What are Von Ebner's Glands and on which papillae are they found?
They are small salivary glands that are responsible for the secretion of serous saliva and they are found on circumvallate papillae.
What is the name of the region where the taste of food is sensed?
Gustatory Cortex (located in the insula)
Taste buds terminate at the ______________ _________.
After terminating at the gustatory nerve, sensory transmission of taste travels to the __________ nucleus in the medulla oblongata and lastly to the gustatory cortex.
What are some common tongue diseases?
Coated tongue, scarlet fever, black/hairy tongue
Tongue infected/coated by bacteria or fungi
Strawberry or raspberry tongue due to irritated papillae
Hypertrophy of filiform papillae, infection by chromogenic bacteria
T/F: Tonsils are aggregates of lymphatic tissue.
Composed of pharyngeal tonsils, palatine tonsils, lingual tonsils and lateral bands of lymphoid tissue
(Adenoids) - posterior wall of nasopharynx.
Largest; located between palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches
Posterior third of the tongue
Age related changes in the oral cavity
Thinner, more delicate epithelium
Flattening of Rete Pegs and papillae
Decrease in Filiform papillae
Decrease in Langherans Cells
Vascular changes - Caviar tongue (varicose veins)
Increase in fordyce spots in lips/cheeks
Pigmentations is the coloring of skin and mucous membranes due to the deposition of the pigment known as ________________.
Melanin is produced by specialized cells known as_____________.
When melanin is transferred from one cell into adjacent cells, this process is called ________________ ________________________.
Pigmentation caused by non-natural causes is called ______________ ______________________.
Effects of medication on the oral cavity - inappropriate uses of medication
Aspirin burn - aspirin tablet in close proximity to carious tooth
Dental fluorosis - prolonged ingestion of fluoride by children under 13
Tetracycline staining - yellow, brown staining of teeth
Effects of medication on the oral cavity - appropriate uses of medication
Hairy tongue - hypertrophy of filiform papillae caused by antibiotics
Enamel erosion - prolonged high doses of chewable aspirin
Mucosal ulcerations - aspirin, chemotherapy, antiviral drugs
Xerostomia - decreased salivary flow, treated with pilocarpine
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