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In some ancient African societies, parents and children lived and worked together as a unit, forming a ___.
Anglo-French conflict fought over French land and the succession to the French crown
Hundred Years' War
period in the papacy during which two competing popes each claimed to be the supreme spiritual authority of the church
T or F: Scholasticism is the thought of bringing together science reasoning and faith to make the world a better place
T or F: The Byzantine Empire was stronger, wealthier, and less corrupt than the western part of the Roman Empire
The city of Constantinople was in a key location on the strait that links the Mediterranean Sea with the ___.
Science made little real progress in Europe in the Middle Ages because ___.
science was considered to be related to magic and witchcraft
What was an effect of the Black Death?
there were large increases in wages and prices throughout Europe
Because of its geographical location, Korea has been strongly influenced by the culture and traditions of ___.
an artist who made sketches of flying machines centuries before the first airplane
Leonardo da Vinci
the city that produced many Renaissance artists and scholars with the support of the Medici family
One way that Renaissance artists reflected the new ideas of humanism was by painting ___.
well-known people of the day
What major theme of the northern Renaissance did Albrecht Durer's engravings portray?
The Swiss city-state of Geneva became a model of Protestant morality under the leadership of ___.
What resulted from the Peace of Augsburg in 1555?
Each German prince could decide the religion for his lands.
Anabaptists believed that infants should not be baptized because ___.
infants are too young to accept the Christian faith
Humanist scholars differed from medieval thinkers in that humanists ___.
tended to focus more on worldly subjects
Sir Thomas More was executed because he ___.
would not accept Henry VIII as head of the Church in England
Unlike Francis Bacon, Rene Descartes believed that the best road to understanding was through ___.
T or F: The Roman Catholic Church was a model of Christian love and treated all of its believers faithfully
T or F: Martin Luther was a Roman Catholic Bishop when he spoke out against the abuses of the Church
T or F: The 95 theses were pounded on the door of a church so there would be so much noise to attract the attention of all the people
T or F: The word Protestant was used to describe the people that opposed the Roman Catholic Church.
T or F: The Peace of Augsburg was revolutionary in the treatment of the lowest class of people.
T or F: The ideal place to live during the Renaissance was Geneva, Switzerland because the secular rule was fair and the citizens could worship freely.
T or F: Humanism is an intellectual movement to understand classical cultures and a better understanding of the current times people are living in.
T or F: Petrarch was from the city state of Florence and is remembered for the library he collected.
T or F: The Medici family is a great example of a powerful merchant class family exerting its influence over a city state.
T or F: The Renaissance time period included many new artistic techniques, including perspective, shading, lighting, using charcoal, mosaics, and drawing on cave walls.
T or F: Christopher Columbus was so confident in his belief that the world was round that eagerly shared the progress of the ships' voyage with the crew.
T or F: New technology in shipbuilding allowed the Europeans to explore the world in the 1400s.
T or F: The United States was the country that brought China out of its isolation in the 1850s.
T or F: The Mughal Empire was so large and powerful that the rulers saw no problem in trading with the Europeans.
T or F: The actual Line of Demarcation was unclear because geography at the time was imprecise.
T or F: The Boers treated the Africans as allies because the Africans helped the Boers defeat the Portuguese.
The southern tip of Africa became known as the Cape of Good Hope because ___.
rounding it gave sailors a direct sea route to Asia.
After Mughal power declined, what group took control over most of India?
the British East India Company
After the Japanese and Manchus invaded Korea, the Koreans responded by ___.
excluding foreigners from their nations
The ___ was the part of the triangular trade route that shipped African slaves to the America.
Under a system called ___, Native Americans were forced to work under brutal conditions.
The economic policy called ___ was based on a nation exporting more goods than it imports.
Who was the conquistador who added the lands of the present-day countries of Peru, Ecuador, and Chile to the Spanish emperor?
The population of New France grew slowly because ___.
the harsh winter kept many French from settling there
The English colonies of Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Maryland were mainly set up as ___.
havens for persecuted religious groups
Widespread inflation struck Europe in mid-1500s due to the increasing amounts of ___.
silver and gold from the Americas
The nomadic peoples of western North America benefited greatly from the European importation of ___.
T or F: A key reason the Spanish were able to dominate the Aztecs is that their leader, Atahualpa, had just completed a civil was against his brother.
Place the following people in the proper social order from the top to the bottom: Native Americans, Mestizos, Creoles, Peninsulares, Mulattoes
Peninsulares, Creoles, Mestizos, Mulattoes, Native Americans
Many European monarchs believed in ___, or that their authority came directly from God.
During the Thirty Years' War, roving armies of ___, or soldiers for hire, killed without mercy.
What did Maria Theresa do to strengthen the Hapsburg empire?
She reorganized the Hapsburg bureaucracy.
Peter the Great waged war against the Ottoman empire to ___.
gain a warm-water port on the Black Sea
T or F: Cardinal Richelieu was chief minister under Louis XIII and strengthened the central government.
T or F: After Charles VI's death, Frederick II of Prussian seized the Hapsburg land of Silesia.
T or F: Peter the Great wanted to conquer Sweden because he needed a warm water port for Russia.
T or F: Cardinal Richelieu received training to become a military officer before switching careers to the service of the church.
Place English monarchs in order they ruled from longest ago to most recent: James I, Henry VIII, Elizabeth I, Charles I, William and Mary, Bloody Mary, Charles II, Cromwell, James II.
Henry VIII, Bloody Mary, Elizabeth I, James I, Charles I, Cromwell, Charles II, James II, William and Mary.
T or F: Frederick II of Prussia always wanted to be a military leader. He studied military history and trained hard from his birth. That is why he deserves to be called Frederick the Great.
T or F: Peter the Great made the boyars cut their beards so they would look more like Western Europeans.
T or F: Throughout the 1700s the nation of Poland was divided three times between Prussia, Russian and Austria. This caused Poland to disappear from the European map.
T or F: The English Bill of Rights includes some of the same rights as guaranteed in the United States' Bill of Rights.
T or F: At one point in history, the Spanish ruled over all of Europe with the exception of France.
T or F: The Ottoman Empire was allied with France, which made life very difficult for the Hapsburgs.
T or F: The Peace of Westphalia stopped the fighting in Germany and created a new unified country.
T or F: The Puritans were only seeking religious freedom for all people and gladly accepted any ruler as their monarch.
The Enlightenment thinker ___ believed in the idea of the separation of powers in government.
Taxes imposed on the colonies by the government of ___ helped bring about the American Revolution.
Economist ___ argued for a free market in which businesses can operate with few government rules.
In an informal social gathering called a ___, Enlightenment thinkers could talk about their ideas.
___ helped spread Enlightenment ideas y publishing a collection of articles by leading thinkers.
In her book "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman," Mary Wollstonecraft argued that women and men should have equal ___.
Because the American colonies were home to diverse religious and ethnic groups, ___.
social distinctions were more blurred than in Europe
The Battle of Saratoga was important to the American Revolution because ___.
the American victory convinced France to support America.
T or F:The Church often embraced the changes of the Enlightenment because all people benefited from the positive changes.
T or F: Parliament passed the Navigation Acts in the 1600s to impose harsh penalties on pirates.
T or F:Frederic II ruled Austria during the Age of Enlightenment, ending censorship and abolishing serfdom during his reign.
What rules discoverable by reason did Enlightenment thinkers try to apply to the study of human behavior and society?
Which enlightened despot considered him/her self to be the "first servant of the state"?
Frederick the Great
T or F: The French government reacted to the first Encyclopedia by incorporating it into the government processes.
During the French Revolution, ___ was executed for demanding equal rights for women.
Olympe de Gouges
Napoleon tried to defeat the British by using the ___, a strategy of closing European ports to British goods.
Each time Napoleon held a ___ during his rise to power, the voters strongly supported him.
The moderate revolutionary leader ___ fought alongside George Washington and was head of the French National Guard.
Marquis de Lafayette
The old order in which France was divided into three social classes was called the ___.
T or F: Dr. Joseph Guillotin introduced the guillotine as a more humane method of beheading people.
T or F: The Reign of Terror happened because the French king needed to punish the people for trying to overthrow his rule.
Louis XVI was forced to dismiss his financial advisor, Jacques Necker, when Necker proposed ___.
taxing the First and Second estates
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen was modeled on the ___.
United States Constitution
When the new National Convention met in 1792, what form of government did the radicals create?
The Reign of Terror gave way to the Directory phase of the revolution in which the dominant political force was the ___.
The Congress of Vienna promoted the principle of legitimacy by ___.
restoring Napoleon to the throne
T or F: When the Parisians stormed the Bastille they expected to find hundreds of weapons to use in the revolution.
T or F: Claiming to represent France, the National Assembly met and delivered the Tennis Court Oath.
T or F: Napoleon capitalized upon nationalism to make Europe the greatest group of nations in the world.
T or F: Robespierre's enemies called him "the incorruptible" because they admired his methods of running the government so much.
T or F: When you have met your "Waterloo," that means just like Napoleon, you have met your final defeat.
In 1789, the delegates to the Estates-General that broke away and declared themselves to be the National Assembly were from the ___.
In the Declaration of Pilnitz, the king of Prussia and emperor of Austria ___.
threatened to intervene to protect the French monarchy
Robespierre believed that France could achieve a "republic of virtue" only through ___.
the use of terror
After overthrowing the Directory in 1799, Napoleon and his followers set up a three-man governing board called the ___.
T or F: Marie Antoinette was a hero of two world since she was a native Austrian (the daughter of the empress) and the queen of France.
T or F: In the Napoleonic era, France was considered to be the whale and Britain the elephant.
Who was the famous Englishman that supported the American Revolution, but argued that the French Revolution was going to be bad for all of Europe?
Capitalists called ___ take on the financial risk of starting and managing new businesses.
___ put his utopian ideas into practice by setting up a model community in New Lanark, Scotland.
A business organization, or ___, in areas such as shipping, mining, or factories, helped fuel the Industrial Revolution.
A drug that prevents pain during surgery, called ___, was patented by an American dentist.
Working-class families in cities typically lived in a ___, or multistory apartment building.
___ improved the steam engine in the late 1700s, helping to provide power for the Industrial Revolution.
During the Industrial Revolution, life changed in what basic way?
People migrated from rural areas to cities.
In the early 1700s, Abraham Darby's experiments led him to ___.
produce a less expensive, better-quality iron
Thomas Malthus discouraged vaccinations because ___.
disease was a natural means of population control
What describes David Ricardo's "Iron Law of Wages?"
Wage increases will not raise the standard of living of poor families.
Germany formed a social democracy in the 1860s to change gradually ___.
from capitalism to socialism
Karl Marx despised capitalism because he believed that it ___.
created prosperity for a few and poverty for many
T or F: Charles Dickens was a great American writer who wrote about the ills of the Industrial Revolution.
What nation successfully gained independence in 1831 following the spread of revolutionary ideas in 1830?
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