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Chapter 9 Food & Agriculture
Terms in this set (49)
Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain.
Raising marine and freshwater fish in ponds and underwater cages
a crop produced for its commercial value rather than for use by the grower.
A grass yielding grain for food.
Areas of the world with similar climatic characteristics
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
method of cultivation in which residues from previous crops are left in the soil, partially covering it and helping to hold it in place until the newly planted seeds are established
Grain or fruit gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season.
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
A form of commercial agriculture that specializes in the production of milk and other dairy products
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
Dietary energy consumption
The amount of food that an individual consumes, measured in kilocalories
Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
The technique, occupation, or diversion of catching fish. Fishing provides a food source and employment to society.
An area in a developed country where healthy food is difficult to obtain
Physical, social, and economic access at all times to safe and nutritious food sufficient to meet dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.
genetically modified organisms
crops that carry new traits that have been inserted through advanced genetic engineering methods
Seed of a cereal grass
Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
intensive subsistence agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
An extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock over vast geographic spaces typically located in semi-arid climates like the American West.
long-lot survey system
distinct regional approach to land surveying found in the Canadian Maritimes, parts of Quebec, Louisiana, and Texas whereby land is divided into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads, or canals
Non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco
Metes and Bounds
A method of land description which involves identifying distances and directions and makes use of both the physical boundaries and measurements of the land.
The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied.
mixed crop and livestock farming
Commercial farming characterized by integration of crops and livestock; most of the crops are fed to animals rather than consumed directly by humans.
A farming practice that leaves all of the soil undisturbed and the entire residue of the previous year's harvest left untouched on the fields.
harvesting fish to the point that species are depleted and the value of the fishery reduced
Malay word for wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to describe a sawah.
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country.
primary economic activity
economic activity concerned with the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment-- such as mining, fishing, lumbering, and especially agriculture
right of inheritance belongs exclusively to the eldest son
quaternary economic activity
Service sector industries concerned with the collection, processing, and manipulation of information and capital. Examples include finance, administration, insurance, and legal services.
A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area.
System of planting crops on ridge tops, in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation.
A flooded field for growing rice
secondary economic activity
economic activity involving the processing of raw materials and their transformation into finished industrial products; the manufacturing sector
The use of tropical forest clearings for crop production until their fertility is lost. Plots are then abandoned, and farmers move on to new sites.
slash and burn agriculture
Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris.
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
tertiary economic activity
Economic activity associated with the provision of services - such as transportation, banking, retailing, education, and routine office-based jobs.
Township and Range System
A rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the U.S. interior.
Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities.
Dietary energy consumption that is continuously below the minimum requirement for maintaining a healthy life and carrying out light physical activity.
Von Thunen Model
An agricultural model that spatially describes agricultural activity in terms of rent. Activities that require intensive cultivation and cannot be transported over great distances pay higher rent to be close to the market. Conversely, activities that are more extensive , with goods that are easy to transport, are located farther from the market where rent is less.
rice planted on dry land in a nursery and then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth
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