Pharm Exam 1 definitions

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Terms in this set (47)
dosage5mg/kg orally every 12 hrs for 5 days is an example ofPotencya relative measurement of biological activity. Its the amount of drug needed to achieve a specified biological effectefficacyeffectiveness. its the ability of the drug to control/cure the illnessPotencythe amount of drug required to produce a certain responseefficacythe maximal response that can be elicited by a drugtrade namea proper noun identifying a company's version of the drugofficial namenonproprietary name of the drug often the generic nameType Aan adverse reaction that can be anticipated based on the known mechanism of the drug and is dose dependentType Ba adverse reaction that is idiosyncratic, unpredictable and not dose dependentextra label drug usethe use of a drug in a species, route, dosage or indication other than indicated on the labelClinical triala study that establishes the safety and efficacy of a drug compared to a placebo or established treatment in a naturally occurring diseasePlaceboa substance or treatment w/ no active therapeutic effect given to deceive the recipient into thinkin that it is an active treatmentPlacebo effecta beneficial health outcome resulting from a persons anticipation that an intervention will help themvehiclea carrier or inert medium used as a solvent in which the drug is formulated and administeredexcipientsInert substance added to a drug to form a suitable consistency to the dosage form to prevent gumming up of the machinebindersinert substance added to drug to form a suitable consistency to the dosage form to prevent tablet crumbling upsolutiona homogenous mixture formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid or gas substance aka the solute w/ a liquid the solvent. Requires no mixingsuspensioncolloids w/ a liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase. Must shake b/c of the particlesemulsioncolloids of two immiscible liquids where either phase may be either fatty or waterAgonistsubstance binding to a receptor that induces a physiologic actionantagonista substance binding to a receptor that blocks the action of an agonistcompetitive antagonistdoes not permanently bind to a receptor but instead releases and reattachesphysiologic antagonistdrugs are antagonistic because of opposing effects at different receptorsnoncompetitive antagonistspermanently bind to the receptor so that a new receptor must be createdLD50the amount of a chemical that kills 50% of the animals in a test populationED99effective dose in 99% of populationLD1lethal dose that kills 1% of a group of animalsED50Effective dose in 50% of the populationcertain safety factorLD1/ED99therapeutic indexLD50/ED50margin of safetydifference between LD50 and ED50Maximum nontoxic dose or No observed (adverse) effect level NOEL/NOAELhighest dose that does not produce toxicityMaximum nontoxic concentrationhighest concentration that does not produce toxicityMinimum effective concentration or lowest observed (adverse) effect level LOEL/LOAELlowest concentration that produces a desired effectdose response curvea graph of the magnitude of an effect of a drug as a function of the amount of drug administeredtoleranceresponsiveness decreases w/ continued drug administrationTachyphylaxisrapid development of tolerance