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Chap. 19 - French Revolution
Terms in this set (80)
..., The war between Great Britain and its American colonies, 1775-83, by which the colonies won their independence.
French and Indian War
(1754-1763) War fought in the colonies between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio Valley area. The English won.
Refers to the revolts going on in Austria at this time. Vienna was trying to control liberal and national revolts within Vienna itself, northern Italy, and Hungary
Treaty of Paris
1763 agreement between Briatin and France that ended the French and Indian War, 1783 and a peace treaty between the Us and Britain that recognized the Us as an independent nation
Marquis de Lafayette was a French major general who aided the colonies during the Revolutionary War. He and Baron von Steuben (a Prussian general) were the two major foreign military experts who helped train the colonial armies.
Society of Thirty
A club composed of people from the Paris Salons, they were "Lovers of Liberty," and embraced enlightenment and American ideas of individual liberties, republicanism, and popular sovereignty. Lafayette returned from his duties during the American Revolution and joined the club.
- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
Queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
the political and social system in place in France before the Revolution
A direct tax from which most French nobles were exempt
an attempt to curtail the sale of military offices to members of the rising French middle class in order to prevent the nobility from growing.
A physiocrat in France in the 1700s who wanted economic reform by removing feudal dues and streamlining government expenses. He was questioned by the nobility and was fired after 18 months. (TB)
A French financial expert and Louis XVI's economic adviser
Charles de Calonne
This financial advisor called the Assembly of Notables, but failed to gain support from the First and Second Estates so he told the king to recall the Estates-General in July 1778
Lomenie de Brienne
Succeeded Calonne. He was Archbishop of Toulouse. Very worldly-wise. Tried to push Calonne's program through the Parlement of Paris but Parlement said only the Estates General could consent to new taxes. Brienne and L XVI tried to replace the Parlements but they resisted. In 1788 Brienne and LXVI promised to call the Estates General.
Assembly of Notables
A consulting body of eminent nobles and clergymen that convened to advise the King of France in 1788 and 1789.
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
Cahiers de Doleances
statements of local grievances drafted throughout France during the elections to the Estates-General, advocating a regular constitutional government abolishing fiscal privileges of the church and nobility
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789.
Tennis Court Oath
A pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution
Jacques Louis David
French painter known for his classicism and his commitment to the ideals of the French Revolution. His works include The Oath of the Horatii (17850 and The Death of Marat (1793).
Storming the Bastille 7/14
Paris-July 14, 1789~the medieval fortress and prison known as the Bastille contained only seven prisoners, its fall was the flashpoint of the French Revolution and it subsequently become an icon of the French Republic
Congressional standing Committees
People's "army" of the revolution during those early days of the Revolution. Led by Lafayette. It was like a private volunteer police force that served as the "muscle" of the revolution in the summer of '89.
french national anthem
A wave of senseless panic that spread through the French countryside after the storming of the Bastille in 1789
French nobles who fled from France during the peasant uprisings. They were very conservative and hoped to restore the king to power.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
A document drafted by the National Assembly promising all men their natural rights and the freedom of expression. No mechanism to enforce these rights
Olympe de Gouges
1755-1793 wrote "The Rights of Women" and argued that the law must be an expression of the general will (men and women) - French Journalist - wanted equal
Declaration of the Rights of Women and Female Citizen
French Revolution document that outlined what the National Assembly considered to be the natural rights of all people and the rights that they possessed as citizens
A reaction against the violence of the Reign of Terror after Robespierre was executed ( named after month of Thermidor); Terror began to decline and National Convention curtailed power of Committee of Public Safety
Constitution of 1795
Constitution created by the French Revolution that had no monarchy and an executive called the Directory
. Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile. (p. 591)
Napoleon's campaign to indirectly attack England by taking their goods source.
The council can order military action to maintain or restore international peace and security
Emperor Napoleon I
nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte; formerly Louis-Napoleon made himself Emperor Napoleon III after winning presidential election; he was accepted with popular favor; France experienced real prosperity under his rule; public works, industrialization, answered social question
Pope Pius VII
pope who agreed to Concordat with Napoleon, crowned Napoleon emperor
Civil Code/ Code Napoleon
preserved revolutionary gains; equality before the law, chose professions, religious toleration, abolition of serfdom and feudalism, property rights. Uniform legal system, legal equality, and protection of property and individuals.
Concordat of 1801
This is the agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon that healed the religious division in France by giving the French Catholics free practice of their religion and Napoleon political power
Continental System/ Berlin Decree
the foreign policy of Napoleon against the British during the Napoleonic Wars. Complete embargo on all British trade with his empire, to try and cut off ties with them, basically he decided that trade tariffs/no trade was a good solution. ECONOMIC WARFARE because he lost in the Battle of Trafalgar-1805)
Germaine de Stael
founder of French Romanticism, she wrote many works that attacked the tyranny of Napoleonic rule.
(1814-1824) Restored Bourbon throne after the Revoltion. He accepted Napoleon's Civil Code (principle of equality before the law), honored the property rights of those who had purchased confiscated land and establish a bicameral (two-house) legislature consisting of the Chamber of Peers (chosen by king) and the Chamber of Deputies (chosen by an electorate).
Battle of Waterloo
A battle fought in Belgium on Sunday 18 June 1815, it was a decisive battle and Napoleon Bonaparte's last. This marked the end of the period known as the Hundred Days,
Duke of Wellington
British soldier and statesman; he led the British troops against Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo
"My Mistress is Power"
together with her husband Jean Marie Roland de la Platiere, a supporter of the French Revolution and influential member of the Girondist faction, but fell out of favor during the Reign of Terror and died by the guillotine.
The brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French King and again becoming Emperor of France
place of napoleons second/last exile and death
..., This island in the Mediterranean Sea off of Italy where Napoleon was initially exiled after he abdicated the throne for the first time. He promised to never leave, but does so and regains power in France for a short period called the Hundred Days
On October 5, 1789 an angry mob of Parisian women stormed through Versailles demanding Louis XVI end the nationwide food shortage and that the royal family return to Paris with them.
Flight to Varennes
King Louis XVI and his families attempt to escape paris; made it only to Varennes where they were arrested and put on house arrest. End of French Monarchy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
1790 declaration by the French National Assembly creating a national church with 83 bishops, democratically elected clergy, and state-paid salaries
Paper currency, the French churches were used as collateral -the first French paper currency issued by the General Assembly.
A French congress with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war, established by the constitution of 1791.
1792; This was the parliament in France. They were responsible to find the best government forms after the monarchy failed. They were responsible for putting Louis XVI to death by guillotine.
The red, white, and blue ribbon that the French revolutionaries adopted as their symbol.
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
Declaration of Pillnitz
A statement agreed upon by Leopold II and Fredrick William II to intervene if Louis XVI was threatened by revolution
A moderate republican faction active in the French Revolution from 1791 to 1793. The Girondin Party favored a policy of extending the French Revolution beyond France's borders.
Left and Right wing
left wing is strongly liberal(democratic) in political views, i.e. socialism; right(republican) is extremely conservative
After France's defeat in the Franco-Prusian War, the liberal National Guard rebuffed the Third Republic's effort to disarm them and formed an independent Paris, with it's own government. The conservative president of France, Adolph Thiers, sent more troops to capture Paris and a bloodbath ensued. Independent Paris was defeated.
Counter-revolution in southern France in 1792-1793 that spread to many regions
French revolutionary leader who stormed the Paris bastille and who supported the execution of Louis XVI but was guillotined by Robespierre for his opposition to the Reign of Terror (1759-1794)
Committee of Public Safety
The leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795.
A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial.
Reign of Terror
the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed
In the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners, and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages
A machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.
• Young, unruly man from Northern Franc
Reorganized french army. Total war. Asked for Levee en Masse
Levee en masse
Law that obligated all French men between certain ages to enlist in the army.
a former royal palace that dates back to the Medieval period until King Louis XIV moved to Versailles, bringing the government with him; current museum
Law of the General Maximum
established price controls on goods delared of first neccessity
Society of Revolutionary Republican Women
Founded by Pauline Leon and Claire Lancombe. Its purpose was to fight the internal enemies of the revolution. Its members saw themselves as militant citizens. It became increasingly radical and was eventually banned.
Temple of Reason
new name for the Cathedral of Notre Dame during the Radical Phase of the Revolution
belief in a higher power, greater than humans
Created by the National Convention, it established after the French Revolution -day one was the first day of the French Republic
Republic of Virtue
Robespierre's attempt to erase all traces of the monarchy, nobility and the Catholic Church
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