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Social studies midterm with no map
Terms in this set (101)
An Italian explorer who was funded by the Spanish Government to find a passage to India. but actually found the new world.
Christopher Columbus' Ships
3. Santa Maria
What year did Christopher Columbus sailed to the New World
A group of people in one place who are ruled by a parent country elsewhere.
Colombian Exchange (Possible Essay)
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
An English explorer who explored for the Dutch. He claimed the Hudson River around present-day New York and called it New Netherland. Unfortunately, after a mutiny, he was set out on a raft into the Hudson Bay to die
Why the Spanish beat the Aztecs (Possible Essay)
the Spanish had a LARGE advantage, with tech tactics and experience, so it was inevitable. However they accidentally brought diseases with them killing them anyway.
a nonexistent waterway through or around North America that explorers try to find
Early Explorers of America
Samual de Champlain
Called the Lost Colony. It was financed by Sir Walter Raleigh, and its leader in the New World was John White. All the settlers disappeared, and historians still don't know what became of them. the left CROATOAN on a post and CRO on a tree
The first permanent English settlement in North America, found in East Virginia
English sepertists who founded Plymouth colony in 1620 to seek freedom
A colony established by the English Pilgrims, or Separatists, in 1620. They almost all died however the Indians helped them survived Plymouth became part of Massachusetts in 1691.
in 1620 it was the first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Colony founded in 1630 by Puritans, for religious freedom
the acceptance of different religious beliefs and customs
A town in which several accusations of witchcraft led to trials in Salem, Massachusetts at which, 18 people were hanged as witches. Afterwards, most of the people involved admitted that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake.
a colony owned and ruled by one person who was chosen by a king or queen
A colony under the direct control of a monarch
English who broke from the Church of England, preached a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
a crop produced for its commercial value rather than for use by the grower.
European trade agreement with Africa dealing with slaves brought from Africa. Integral part of Triangle Trade between the Americas, Africa, and Europe.
The route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade
Laws that controlled the lives of enslaved African Americans and denied them basic rights.
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new churches were established.
The Great Enlightenment was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas during the 17th and 18th centuries mainly led by John Locke.
Started the Great Awakening.
Laws passed by the British to control colonial trade
A system in which goods and slaves were traded among America, Britain, and Africa
French and Indian War
France was settling west making forts in the Ohio River Valley and bonding with natives. Both French and British wanted the land, but Britain claims it anyway and sends GW to build a road there, then militia kills french ambassador so they retaliate by taking a British fort, England declares a war on France (7y), Great Britain won but they are put into debt.
1st President of the United States; commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1732-1799)
Albany Plan of Union
the plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown
law passed by the British Parliament setting taxes on molasses and sugar imported by the colonies
an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
A formal message requesting something that is submitted to an authority
A refusal to buy or use goods and services to make a point.
withdrawn or cancelled
A set of laws that that imposed new taxes on the colonys passed by British Parliament placed on leads, glass, paint, tea etc
was a member of the Sons of Liberty who started the Committee of Correspondence to help public support for American independence.
America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts.
a leader of the American Revolution and a famous orator who spoke out against British rule of the American colonies he is famous for saying "give me liberty or give me death,"
The Boston Massacre
The first bloodshed of the American Revolution (1770), as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five Americans
A free black man who was the first person killed in the Revolution at the Boston Massacre.
Boston Tea Party
A 1773 protest against British taxes in which Boston colonists disguised as Mohawks dumped valuable tea into Boston Harbor.
Closed the port of Boston and quartered British troops in american homes as punishment for Boston Tea Party.
Wrote the Declaration of Independence
3rd President of the United States
First Continental Congress
Delagates from all colonies except georgia met to discuss problems with britain and to promote independence
A group of civilians trained to fight in emergencies
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
American inventor and politician He helped to negotiate French support for the American Revolution.
Battles of Lexington and Concord
1st battle of the American Revolution. Known as the "Shot Heard 'Round the World"
Culper Spy Ring
a spy ring organized by American Major (later Colonel) Benjamin Tallmadge under orders from General George Washington in the summer of 1778 during British occupation of New York City at the height of the American Revolutionary War.
the American army during the American Revolution
Patriots vs Loyalists
Patriots wanted to separate from England and Loyalists wanted to stay under England's rule.
Battle of Bunker Hill
In 1775, first major battle of the revolution where the Americans fought to hold a hill
The use of troops or ships to prevent commercial traffic from entering or leaving a city or region
*Author of "Common Sense" a pro revolution text that inspired many to become patriots
Declaration of Independence
Signed in 1776 by US revolutionaries; it declared the United States as a free nation.
Battle of Long Island
Battle for the control of New York. British troops overwhelmed the colonial militias and retained control of the city for most of the war. It was the first real navel conflict and it was a close call
best army and navy, strong central gov, loyalists support
far from home, unfamiliar with the land, old battle tactics
untrained soldiers, shortage of supplies, miniscule navy, no central gov
home-field, GW, new battle tactics, fighting for a cause
General Charles Cornwallis
He was British
he was British General
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support.
Marquis de Lafayette
French soldier who joined General Washington's staff and became a general in the Continental Army.
Benedict Arnold ❤️😍😳💝 💕
Amazing American General who was labeled a traitor when he sold the British the plans to west point wich he was in control of. Luckily the British failed to take the fort. (SOOO BEAUTIFUL) ❤️😍😳💝 💕
Friedrich von Steuben
Military officer from Germany who trained American soldiers during the American Revolution.
Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton, Steuben comes and trains troops
John Paul Jones
American naval commander in the American Revolution (1747-1792) said " I have not yet begun to fight."
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
Treaty of Paris 1763
Ended French and Indian War, France lost Canada, land east of the Mississippi, to British, New Orleans and west of Mississippi to Spain
Treaty of Paris 1783
This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River
Articles of Confederation
A weak constitution governed America during the Revolutionary War.
"Large state" proposal for the new constitution, calling for proportional representation in both houses of Congress.
New Jersey Plan
A constitutional proposal that would have given each state one vote in a new congress
The compromise made by the Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house
Supporters of the U.S. Constitution at the time the states were contemplating its adoption.
Anti-Federalists rose up as the opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification. They opposed the Constitution's powerful centralized government.
Written by Hamilton, Jay, & Madison to support ratification of the U.S. Constituiton
Bill of Rights
First 10 amendments to the Constitution
A slave was to be counted as three-fifths of all "free persons," for purposes of both representation and taxation.
3 separate Branches of government
Legislative, Executive, Judicial
Makes laws (Congress)
enforces laws (president)
interprets laws (supreme court)
the upper house of Congress, consisting of two representatives from each state
House of Rep
the lower house of Congress, consisting of proportional representatives from each state
A group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president
the highest federal court in the United States
Secretary of Treasury: Alexander Hamilton; Secretary of War: Henry Knox; Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson
First Bank of the United States
Created in 1791 by Alexander Hamilton, the first Secretary of Treasury, the Bank of the United States was chartered for 20 years and was to have $10mil, 1/5 of which was to be owned by the federal government.
An argument between Jefferson and Hamilton on whether or not to establish a national bank
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against the tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion.
Washington's Foreign Policy
remain neutral also known as isolation
Washington's Farewell Address
He warned against the dangers of political parties and foreign alliances.
John Adams Presidency
Second President of the United States he squandered his popularity by signing the Alien and Sedition Acts into law in 1798. Ostensibly written to protect American interests, the acts gave the government broad powers to deport "enemy" aliens and arrest anyone who strongly disagreed with the government.
Alien and sedition acts
acts passed by federalists giving the government power to imprison or deport foreign citizens and prosecute critics of the government
An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.
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