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AP Euro: Units 1-3 FRQ Prep Notes 10/28/14
Thank you Sofia :)
Terms in this set (28)
Analyze the changes in the European economy from about 1450 to 1700 brought about by the voyages of exploration and by colonization. Give specific examples.
-Gold, God, Glory
-Spread of religion
-Spain and Portugal
-Colonization of AMERICA
In 1519 Charles of Habsburg became Charles V, Holy Roman emperor. Analyze the political, social, and religious problems he faced over the course of his imperial reign (1519-1556).
-political problems- Holy Roman empire, league of Shmaldik
-social problems- Peasant's war
-Religious problems- Lutherans, Diet of Worms, Peace of Augsburg
In 1490 there was no such country as Spain, yet within a century it had become the most powerful nation in Europe and within another had sunk to the status of a third-rate power. Analyze the major social, economic, and political reasons for Spain's rise and fall.
-Social-Exploration of the new world (rise) Phillip II forced jews to convert to christianity or leave (fall)
-Economic-Conquer ofAztec and Inca empire brought GREAT wealth to spain (rise) Infaltion due to too much wealth= extreme growth in population(fall)
-Political- Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella because it funded foreign ventures militarily and allowed Spain to secure its borders and spread out their religion (rise) Defeat of the Spanish Aramada that invaded England in the english cannals(fall)
Analyze the ways in which Italian Renaissance humanism transformed ideas about the individual's role in society.
This shaped the way science developed. Instead of believing what the Church said blindly, Humanism encouraged scientists to make observations and learn from one's own personal experience. It was the revivals of old roman and greek scriptures that had been rotting away in libraries for centuries. Idealism and philosophy were important as well at this time. Art idealism was more important the realism.
Focusing on the period before 1600, analyze the cultural and economic interactions between Europe and the Western hemisphere as a result of the Spanish and Portuguese exploration and settlement.
Cultural- Catholicism was spread to colonized areas in the new world
Economic- Gold, silver and other valuable items from the New World brought wealth to Europe
Analyze how Renaissance ideas are expressed in the Italian art of the period, referring to specific works and artists
-The idea of humanisms is shown in the painting of Albrech Durer (self-portraits)
-The mythology in in Botticelli's work
-Michelangelo signature in almost all of his work
Analyze the influence of humanism on the visual arts in the Italian Renaissance. Use at least THREE specific works to support your analysis.
- Art was greatly influenced during the Italian Renaissance since a new self-interest that can be shown in the works of Albrecht Dürer, who instead of painting religious things, he focused m in self-portraits, Michelangelo, who always signed his works, and Botticelli, who went astray from the religious theme in his artwork focused more in mythology
Using examples from at least two different states, analyze the key features of the "new monarchies" and the factors responsible for their rise in the period 1450 to 1550.
-Spain- the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella and how it secured the borders of Spain and allowed it to be a united country with one faith and also allowed foreign ventures to the military
-France- Louis XI (the spider) Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438): king controls the Church
Analyze the factors that contributed to the increasing centralization of Spain and the factors that contributed to the continuing fragmentation of Italy in the period 1450-1550.
New monarchy of Spain and the sacking of Rome in italy + multiple invasions
Analyze the responses of the Catholic authorities in the sixteenth century to the challenges posed by the Lutheran Reformation.
-Catholic Counter Reformation was a response to the protestant reformation
"Luther was both a revolutionary and a conservative." Evaluate this statement with respect to Luther's responses to the political and social questions of his day
political- 95 theses against Indulgences, he wanted the church to become pure again without corruption from wealth
social- Taught the everyone was equal in God's eyes which caused the Peasant revolt....
"The Protestant Reformation was primarily an economic event." By describing and determining the relative importance of the economic, political, and religious causes of the Protestant Reformation, defend or refute this statement.
-Protestant ethic was a force behind an unplanned and uncoordinated mass action that led to the development of capitalism. This idea, also known as "the Weber thesis"
Analyze the ways in which the development of printing altered both the culture and the religion of Europe during the period 1450-1600.
The invention of the Printing Press by Johann Gutenberg changed both culture and religion throughout Europe from 1450-1600 by making books less expensive, which influenced the amount of educated people and effected the spread of Christianity.
Spread of information much faster
Analyze the ways in which sixteenth-century Roman Catholics defended their faith against the Protestant Reformation.
One of the first things which was done was remove the corrupted clergy from the Catholic Church and many were excommunicated from the Church. The second thing the Church had done was fix the doctrine of indulgences which would remove any future possibility of abuses. The third thing which was done was revise the Latin Vulgate for the lay faithful to be freely distributed, preached from, and taught from by the lay faithful. And finally the Church created Religious Orders and movements to evangelize not only to bring the Gospel to foreign lands but also to bring the Gospel to the Reformers.
Analyze the attitudes of Martin Luther and John Calvin toward political authority and social order
Luther- Denied political and religious power of the pope (political) and wanted people to read the bible for themselves (social) State and church should be separate
Calvin- Denied political and religious power of the pope (political) and wanted people to read the bible for themselves (social) Believed that the church and the state should be one
Analyze the Lutheran Reformation and the Catholic Reformation of the sixteenth century regarding the reform of both religious doctrines and religious practices.
The Protestant Reformation began the Thirty's Year War, the Catholic or Counter Reformation ended this pointless war.
Analyze the political and social consequences of the Protestant Reformation in the first half of the sixteenth century
-political- thirty year's war, peasant's revolt
social-celibacy abolished, protestant work ethic....
Analyze the motives and actions of Martin Luther in the German states and King Henry VIII in England in bringing about religious change during the Reformation.
Martin Luther was motivated to reform the church solely for religious reasons; mostly frustration with the corruption of the Catholic Church, while King Henry VIII was motivated by both his personal life and his personal gain.
Analyze the aims, methods, and degree of success of the Catholic Reformation (Counter-Reformation) in the sixteenth century
The Counter-Reformation in Europe was implemented to halt the Protestant Reformation and build back the power of the Catholic Church through education, clergy reforms, and missionary practice. The Counter-Reformation was successful in saving the integrity of the Roman Catholic Church, but it did not end Protestantism. Protestants had exploited the faults of the Roman Catholic Church, and that was the first thing the counter- reformation dealt with.
Analyze the causes of and the responses to the peasants' revolts in the German states, 1524-1526.
Martin luther said that he believed everyone was equal in god's eyes
They were stopped when martin luther told the kind to have them killed since this was not his message.
Analyze Renaissance Florence with Reformation Geneva with respect to religion, government, and everyday life
Government- theocracy was the law of the bible
Everyday life- be morally perfect and live as if you were saved
Religion-Anyone could be whatever they wanted
Government- the power of the city was on wealthy families like the medicis
Analyze the reasons for the decline of the Holy Roman Empire as a force In European politics in the period 1517 to 1648
The main reasons for the decline of the Holy Roman Empire as a force in European Politics in the period from 1517 to 1648 were Charles V's reign (no centralized power and all states were divided) as emperor, the Protestant Reformation (Martin Luther's Protestant Reformation weakened the empire the nobles divided even more by choosing different religions, german nobles gained more power by enforcing different religion than emperor), and the Wars of Religion
Analyze the impact of TWO cultural and/or technological developments on European education in the period 1450 to 1650
Technical: Printing press
Analyze various ways in which the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) represented a turning point in European History
Rivalry between france and habsburg that ended with the treaty of Westphalia, Calvinism was accepted, the holy roman empire decreased in power as well as spain.
Analyze the reason for the rise of the Netherlands as a leading commercial power in the period 1550-1650.
Due to it's economic structure, which included: Herring (transporting other people's items on ships), market farming (farmers grew crops for themselves then sold leftovers), banking (important to dutch capitalism, you need money to make money), Dutch East India Company and Dutch West India company. Bank of Amsterdam, mercantilism
Analyze the economic and social development of Russia with that of the Netherlands in the period 1600-1725
Peter the Great tried to westernize Russia
Economic- he taxed everything and anything mainly to support and strengthen his army
Social- people were told to cut off their beards and dress more western
Economic- Leading commercial power due to mainly banking and herring.
Social- almost everyone in the Netherlands was considered a noble because they were all middle class. The serfs lived a good life as well as the nobles and there wasn't much poverty..
Analyze the major ways through which Tsar Peter the Great (1689-1725) sought to reform his society and its institutions in order to strengthen Russia and its position in Europe.
Replaced patriarch with a Holy Synod of 10 bishops in the church
Analyze the military, political, and social factors that account for the rise of Prussia between 1640 and 1786.
Military- it had a hugeeee army that wasn't really used but it represented a united empire that represented prussia
Political-Bureaucracy serves the army
Social- They accepted any religions, they just wanted people to come over to Prussia (mostly nobles) so they could get their money and invest in the military
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