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Deng Xiaping

This Chinese leader brought more economic
freedom, promoting trade with the West,
and initiating the Four Modernizations.

Anwar Sadat

Egyptian leader who signed the Camp David Peace Accord with Israel, recognizing the existence of the state of Israel.

Slobodan Milosevic

This Serbian leader of the Yugoslavian
government, encouraged brutal campaigns of
ethnic cleansing against non-Serbs.

Fidel Castro

This Cuban lawyer opposed the Cuban
Batista government, and led a communist
revolution in that nation.

Lech Walesa

This Polish labor leader led the
Independent Trade Union called Solidarity, against the Soviet backed Polish government.

Leonardo Da Vinci

This famous painter was very much
interested in human anatomy. His mostfamous painting is the Mona Lisa.

Louis Pastuer

This French Scientist showed the link
between germs and diseases.

Thomas Malthus

This English thinker published his Essay
on The Principle of Population, where
he argued that population tended to increase
more rapidly than the for supply.


This French thinker wrote that the
powers of government should be separated
into three branches, legislative, executive, and judicial.


This Polish scholar challenged the belief
that Earth was the center of the universe.

Count Camillo Cavour

This Italian nationalist, used diplomacy to
unify the Italian peninsula in the 1800s.

Klemens von Metternich

This Austrian minister,
wanting to "turn the clock backwards"
following the French Revolution was considered the architect of the Congress of Vienna.

Peter the Great

This Russian leader centralized Russian government, and modernized and westernized

Akbar the Great

This individual ruled the powerful Mughal
empire in India. He encouraged trade,
increased the military, and promoted religious

Suleiman the Magnificent

This ruler wa nicknamed "The Magnificent"
He would modernize the Ottoman Empire's
army. His reign is considered the
Golden Age of Ottoman History.

Vasco de Gama

This Portuguese adventurer
traveled across the Indian Ocean and established a port in India.

Matteo Ricci

This Jesuit priest, gained acceptance among
the Ming court of China. He would share his knowledge of European science and art.

Mansa Musa

This most powerful ruler of Mali,
ran an efficient government, and dominated West Africa

Zheng He

In the early 1400s, this Chinese adventurer
traveled throughout Southeast Asia, India, all
the way to Africa.

Marco Polo

This Italian merchant traveled to China
on the silk road to open east-west

James Watt

This man invented the steam engine
to drive new spinning and
weaving machines.

Henry the Navigator

This Portugese explorerinvented the astrolabe
and the sexton, helping ships navigate
the open ocean.

Johann Gutenberg

This individual transformed
the concept of information with the creation
of the printing press.

Henry Bessemer

This man created a cheap and efficient way of
making steel.

Eli Whitney

This individual invented a machine that
could pick and clean as much cotton as 50 people.

Michael Gorbechev

This Soviet leader initiated a policy
of openness called "glasnost", and reform
called "perestroika"

Jomo Kenyatta

This nationalist leader helped Kenya achieve
its independence from colonial rule.

Mao Zedong

This Chinese nationalist led the communists
during the Chinese Revolution.

Nelson Mandela

An important African National Congress Leader.
He strgonly opposed Apartheid. He was
elected president of South Africa in 1994.

Joesph Stalin

This dictator was the ruler of
the Soviet Union during World War II. He was responsible for the death of 40 - 60 million people.

Otto von Bismarck

This "Great" GermanChancellor believed Germany could only be united with
"Blood and Iron"

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