Nutrition Exam 1

_____ is the biological drive to find and eat food and is regulated by internal mechanisms underlying metabolism
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 124
Terms in this set (124)
_____chemicals are chemicals made by and found in plantsPhytochemicals_____chemicals are chemicals made by and found in animalsZoochemicalsTomatoes can be called functional foods because they contain several _____ including lycopenePhytochemicalsEnergy value for carbohydrates is _____ kcal per gram4Energy value for fat is _____ kcal per gram9Energy value for protein is _____ kcal per gram4Energy value for alcohol is _____ kcal per gram7_____ is the amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree CelsiusCalorieFood energy is measured in _____Kilocalories (kcal)In the typical North American diet, _____% of kcal are proteins, _____% of kcals are carbohydrates and ____% of kcals are fats15 52 33_____ is the comparison of vitamin nd mineral (& phytochemicals) content with number of kcalsNutrient densityConsume a ____ of foods ______ by a _____ intake of each foodVariety Balanced Moderate_____ is comparison of kcal content with weight of foodEnergy densityAvoid foods with _____ energy density and choose foods with _____ energy densityHigh LowMeasuring nutritional state: A, B, C, D, EA: anthropometric B: Biochemical C: Clinical D: Dietary E: Environmental (educational, economical)What are the 2 limitations of nutritional assessment?1. Delayed symptoms and signs 2. Symptoms due to different causesWhat is the aim of MyPlate?Caloric balance (food quantity)Are DRIs on food labels? And why?No Gender and age specific_____ are used as a rough guide for comparing the nutrient content of a food to approximate human needsDaily value (DV)Fresh foods, vegetables, raw single ingredient meals, poultry and fish are ______ (voluntary or involuntary) foods requiring a food labelVoluntaryTrace minerals are transported in blood ______Bound to proteinsThe _____ system is passage for lipid-soluble nutrients for large particles (lipids & lipid soluble vitamins)Lymphatic______ is muscular contraction involving progressive movement of food from one point to another along the GI tractPeristalsisSaliva is mainlyWaterWhat enzyme is functional in saliva?A-amylaseWhat is the pH of saliva?6-7Mucus is mostly ______WaterWhat are the 2 electrolytes in mucus of saliva?K+, HCO3-_____ is a digestive enzyme that breaks down cell wall of bacteria (has B1->4 glycosides activity) & allows entry of thiocyanateLysozyme______ stabilizes released vitamin B-12 from foodR-proteinThe stomach has a capacity of about ______ cups6Gastric secretions are mostly _____WaterHydrochloric acid is secreted by ______Parietal cellsHydrochloric acid initiates activation of ______Pepsinogenmucus is secreted byGoblet cellsPepsinogen is secreted by _____ cellsChiefIntrinsic factor is secreted by ______ cellsParietal cellsHistamine is secreted by ______ cellsEnterochromaffin-like cells (ECL)Gastrin is secreted by _____ cellsGastrin (G) cellsGhrelin is secreted by _____ cellsGhrelin_____ is a hormone that acts as a short-term appetite stimulantGhrelin_____ is a hormone that stimulates pepsinogen and acid secretionGastrin_____ is a hormone that stimulates (with acetylcholine) acid secretion by parietal cells and decreases appetite and food intakeHistamine95% of digestion takes place in the ____ (organ)Small intestine (mostly in duodenum and upper jejunum)Body's entire supply of enterocytes is replaced every _____ days2 to 5 days_____ (enzyme) starts the activation of pancreatic zymogenEnteropeptidaseEnteropeptidase is secreted by _____ (organ)Small intestineFats are absorbed as _____ by _____ transportMAGS PassiveProteins are absorbed as _____ by _____ transport using a _____Free amino acids Secondary active transport Sodium gradientGlucose and galactose are absorbed using _____ transport using a _____Secondary active transport Sodium gradient (SGT)Fructose is absorbed by _____ tranportFacilitated passiveSodium bicarbonate is secreted by what organ?PancreasPancreatic secretion is regulated by ______ and by the intestinal hormones _____ & _____Acetylcholine Cholecystokinin SecretinDoes the large intestine have villi or enzymes?NoThe bacterial flora in the large intestine are more than _____ microbial cells or about ____ times the number of cells in the human body100 trillion 10Are probiotics or prebiotics live microorganisms that provide health benefits when they are consumed in sufficient amounts?ProbioticsAre probiotics or prebiotics non-digestive carbohydrates that promote the growth of beneficial bacteria in the large intestine?PrebioticsInulin is an example of a _____bioticPrebioticRectum stool elimination are facilitated by fiber-_____ diets (rich or poor)RichBile salts are transported to small intestine via ____ in gallbladderBileBile salts are converted to bile acids by _____Intestinal bacteriaBile acids are transported back to liver via _____Portal vein_____ is a stomach acid reflux disease into esophagusGastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)_____ are erosion of the lining of stomach, esophagus or small intestine due to gastric acid and enzymesPeptic ulcersThe therapy for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is eating a ______ diet and avoiding gassy foods and dairyHigh fiber_____ disease is a chronic immune mediated disease that targets small intestine cellsCeliacGall stones are mainly _____ and not enough bile saltsCholesterol______ study of interactions between nutrition and genetics; includes nutrigenetics and nutrigenomicsNutritional genomics_____ is the study of the effect of genes on nutritional health, such as variations in nutrient requirement and responsiveness to dietary modificationsNutrigenetics_____ is the study of how food impacts health through its interaction with our genes and its subsequent effect on gene expressionNutrigenomicsthe main overarching goal of healthy people 2020 is _______. to promote healthy lives, diets should _________.- society that focuses on high quality of life where all people are healthy and live longer - include variety, amount, and nutrient density_______________ is the biological drive to find and eat food and is regulated by internal factors. to avoid unhealthy eating behaviors and weight gain, a college student diet should include ____________.hunger lean proteins, whole grains, fruits, veggies, healthy fatsmicronutrients that enhance enzyme activity and function include _________ and _________.minerals vitaminsan essential nutrient is _______. An example of an essential nutrient is____________.required in diet vitamin caccording to food and nutrition board an acceptable macronutrient distribution range for carbohydrates is ________.45-65%___________________ involves measurement of body weight, circumferences, lengths and thickness of skin for detection of nutrient-linked disease or deficiency. One of the limitations of current nutrition assessments is _________.- anthropometric assessment - long time for emergence of clinical symptoms of clinical symptoms of a dietary disease_____________ is the ratio derived by dividing a food's nutrient content by its caloric content. _______ is an example of food which has a high value for this ratio.nutrient density kalethe recommended dietary allowance is used to ______.evaluate the highest amount of daily nutrient intake unlikely to cause adverse health effects________________ is the nutrient standard term seen on food labels which is used as rough guide to compare the nutrient content of a food to meet our body's needs and is based on consumption of a 2000 kcal diet. For consumer awareness on nutrients, information on this standard is available on __________.daily value MyPlateIn the US many people don't meet their RDA for ________________(vitamin)vitamin D___________________ is a a state in which intake of nutrients exceeds body's needs and often results in metabolic imbalance and disease. Hypertension is common in people who consume excess of ____________.over nutritional state sodium_________________ is the assessment of nutritional status involves laboratory assessment of biological fluids to measure enzyme activities, relative concentrations of nutrients and their metabolites.biochemical_______ is the standard used to describe the maximum chronic daily intake level of a nutrient that is unlikely to cause adverse healthy effects in almost all people in a specific life stagetolerable upper take levelchanges in the new nutrition labels include _______font size increased added sugarsT/F food packages or containers must include the following information -- weight of product and ingredients in descending orderTnew nutrition labels must contain information on ________ and _______dietary fiber vitamin Dwhat 4 nutrients are required on new labels?vitamin D iron calcium potassiumwhat term refers to the comparison of nutrient content of a food to the approximate energy requirements of the general population?recommended dietary allowanceWhat is a rough guide that compares nutrient content to meet the body's needs(2000 kcal diet)?daily valuehypertension is common in people who consume excess amounts of what nutrients?sodium potassium__________ is a menu planning tool. __________ has no specific assignment in the planning tool.myplate healthy plant oilsexample of a health fat sugarless gum'calcium builds stronger bones' is what type of food claim?structure function claimwhat type of assessment would help determine enzyme activity?biochemical assessmentwhat is used to evaluate current intake of nutrients for majority of population?RDAwhat is the ratio of vitamins and minerals divided by caloric content?nutrient density_________ cells produce acid(HCl) in the stomach. ________ stimulates these cells to produce acid.parietal cells gastrin_______ is a mixture of partially digested food and acidic gastric secretions. _______ allows release of this substance from stomach to duodenum.chyme pyloric sphincter_______ in the stomach stimulates release of vitamins and minerals from partially digested food to increase bioavailability. The stomach produces _________ that aids in B12 absorptionHCl Intrinsic Factor__________ is the smooth muscle contraction that helps move food throughout GI tract. _________ is the chemical/mechanical process in which macromolecules are broken down to release nutrientsperistalsis digestion_______ is produced by the small intestine and signals the pancreas to release bicarbonate ions. _________ from the small intestine signals the gallbladder to release bile.secretin cholecystokinin______________ primary function is to prevent back flow of acidic content from the stomach into the structure that connects the pharynx to stomach.lower esophageal sphincterdysfunction of the _______ can cause GERD.lower esophageal sphincter_______ is the accessory organ that stores bile.gallbladder__________ and _________ are non digestive carbohydrates that stimulate bacterial growth are called _________.inulin fructans prebiotics___________ activates pepsinogen to pepsin. _________ cells produce pepsinogen in the stomach. (& are stimulated by gastrin)HCl chief cellswhat enzyme activates trypsin?enteropeptidase__________ is in saliva and helps digest starch. _______ in saliva and helps stabilize vitamin B12.alpha-amylase R-protein__________ activates trypsinogen to trypsin. The main function of trypsin is to break down _______________(types of bonds)enteropeptidase polypeptides at arginine/lysine_______ studies the effect of genes on nutritional health. _____________ studies how food content interacts with genes and how they are expressed.nutrigenetics nutrigenomics______________ stimulates the gallbladder to release bile. Malfunction of ______________ can interfere with the release of bile and impair fat digestion in the small intestine.cholecystokinin sphincter of oddi_____________ catalyzes the degradation of a disaccharide(maltose) forming 2 glucose molecules.maltase_______________ is part of the small intestine that aids the most in food digestion. __________ is a hormone that stimulates pancreas to release bicarbonate ions.duodenum secretin_____________ are microbes present in fermented foods that stimulate gut microbiome and beneficial for health. Colon is also the site for synthesis of vitamins like _____ and _____probiotics vitamin K biotin