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The definitions you need to know for first year of IB.


the solution is found in a similar situation in another field


a sequence of instructions to describe a set of actions


the transfer of an idea from one context to another


a form of group thinking to come up with ideas where no criticism is allowed

Design brief

the formal starting point for the design of the product

Computer modeling

a computer program which attempts to simulate the abstract model of a particular system

Computer Aided Design

the use of computers to aid the design process

Constructive discontent

analysing a situation, which would benefit from re-design, and working out a strategy for improving it.

Convergent thinking

the ability to analise the information and choose an answer from the wide range of alternatives

Design specification

justifies the precise requirements of the design and also list of criteria against which it can be evaluated

Divergent thinking

the ability to come up with wide range of possible solutions

Exploded isometric drawing

an isometric drawing of an object with more than one component which shows how they fit together

Flow chart

a schematic representation of the process

Free hand drawing

the spontaneous representation if the ideas on paper without any technical aids

Incremental design

small changes to the design of a product, which are insignificant on their own, but accumulate over time to give a larger effect

Isometric drawing

a 3D epresentation of an object drawn with a 30 degree inclination to the vertical plane

Mathematical model

a model that using mathematic symbols that can be manipulated numerically

Morphological synthesis

an elaboration of attribute listing, listed along two sides of 2D grid

Orthographic drawing

a series of flat veis showing the object in its exact shape and size

Perspective drawing

a 3D drawing that realistically represents an object by utilizing foreshortening and vanishing points

Radical design

where a completely new product is devised by going back to the roots of the problem and thinking about a solution in different way

Design for assembly

designing taking into account of assembly at different levels e.g. component to component and subassemblies

Design for disassembly

designing whilst taking into account the need to take apart the product when it becomes obselete so that it can be reused, repaired or materials recycled

Design for manufacture

designing specifically for the optimization of current manufacturing capability

Design for materials

design in relation to materials during processing

Design for process

designing the product so it can be made using a specific process such as injection moulding

Green design

designing a product in a way that takes account its impact on the environment throughout its life

Life analysis

the assessment of the effect that a product has from its initial concept to disposal


a mixture that contains at least one metal


the smallest part of an element that can exist chemically


a mixture composed of two or more substances when one acting as the matrix or glue


the mass per unit volume of material


the ability of the material to be drawn into wires or other extended shape

Electrical resistivity

a measure of a material to conduct electricity


a class of materials that are continuous filaments or discreet elongated pieces with the thickness to length ratio of at least 1:80

Fibre structure

a filamentous material long in relation to its width


the resistants materials offers against scratching or penetration


two or more atoms bonded together covalently

Plastic deformation

the permanent deformation of an object subjected to stress

Tensile strength

the ability of the material to resist pulling forces

Thermal conductivity

the ability of a material to pass on heat energy

Thermal expansion

the change in a volume of a material due to a change in its temperature


the ability of an object to withstand the propagation of cracks

Fixed costs

costs of production which do not change regardless of how much you produce

Mass production

the production of large amounts of a standardized product on production lines giving a high rate of production per worker

Field trial

a test of the performance of some new product under the conditions in which it will be used

Performance test

an evaluation of the actual performance of the task or learning objective using the condition under which it will be performed and act as an absolute standard for acceptable performance

User trial

the observation of people using the product and collection of their comments

Value for money

the relation between how much something is priced and what it is worth

Injection moulding

the direct introduction of molten plastic under pressure into a die where it cools and solidifies upon contact with the surface of the die

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