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Psychology Exam Review - Unit 1
Terms in this set (57)
What is personality?
Characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting that make a person unique.
What is psychoanalytic theory? Who created it?
A method of investigating and treating personality disorders and is used in psychotherapy. Sigmund Freud
Explain Sigmund Freud's idea of the unconscious & the method he used to study it?
Unconscious contains feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories outside of our awareness. Free association involved freely saying whatever comes to mind, even if not connected, seemingly unimportant, or embarrassing.
Explain Freud's parts of personality - id, ego & superego. What is the libido?
ID: Contains basic drives and instincts; sexual and aggressive impulses
Libido: The internal energy force that drives us in sexual nature
Ego: The reasonable, rational "self"
Superego: Causes us to feel guilt for doing wrong things
Explain Freud's five psychosexual stages. Also explain why fixation might occur & the results.
Oral Stage: Feeding is the main source of pleasure. Weaning is the task. If a child is weaned too late or early it can cause smoking
Anal Stage: Toilet training is the main task. If toilet training is too harsh or lenient, it can cause stingy and irresponsible personalities.
Phallic Stage: Romantic desire towards opposite-sex parent and hostility towards same-sex parent. If identification does not occur, the child could gain unreasonable anxiety
Latency Stage: Conflicts or problems from earlier stages are subdued or hidden.
Genital Stage: The conflicts of early childhood reappear
What is the oedipus complex and in which stage does it take place?
Romantic desire towards opposite-sex parent and hostility towards same-sex parent. Phallic stage
What are defense mechanisms?
mental processes that protect individuals from strong or stressful emotions and situations
Excluding emotionally painful thoughts and feelings from conscious awareness
Slipping to an earlier stage of development when faced with stress
Refuse to accept the truth or reality of a fact or experience
An imagined sequence of events or mental images to gratify unconscious wishes
The converting of unwanted or dangerous thoughts into their opposites
An attempt to make up for deficiency by directing energy to another aspect of one's personality in which no deficiency exists.
Transfers the drive, attitude, or behavior that cause an anxiety to others
Putting off an undesirable task
Transferring thoughts and feelings toward one person or object onto another person or object
Engrossing oneself so deeply in the reasoning aspect of a situation that you completely disregard the emotional aspect that is involved
Using excuses to explain away threatening circumstances
A person tries to assume the qualities of someone that is admired
Transforming unacceptable impulse into socially accepted behavior
How are the Neo-Freudians different from Freud?
Emphasized loftier human motives rather than sex and aggression
A reservoir containing the archetypes shared by the whole human race
Universal beliefs we inherit
The mask we sometimes wear to hide what we truly are or feel
Prefer their internal world of thoughts and like being alone
Prefer external world things and like being with others.
Explain Karen Horney's ideas about how personality is formed.
We build personalities around fighting rejection
What causes anxiety & the three ways we might deal with it?
If a person is rejected, he or she will become neurotic.
Comply: move too close to people
Become aggressive: move against people
Detach: move away from people
Explain Alfred Adler's ideas about how personality is shaped, including birth order & the inferiority complex.
Social tensions are what shape our personality.
Children want parents attention; will get it in different ways based on birth position, creating different characteristics
Inferiority complex: Lack of self-worth, doubt and uncertainty; feeling of not measuring up to standards
Trust vs. Mistrust
Infant: Mother, feeding, weaning, attachment
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Toddler: Parents, toilet training, walking
Initiative vs. Guilt
Pre-Schooler: Family, exploration, discovery
Industry vs Inferiority
School Age Children: Neighborhood, school, teachers
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Adolescent: Peers, groups, influence, role models
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Young Adult: Partners, friends, relationships
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Middle Adult: Household, co-workers, children
Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Older Adult: Mankind, life meaning
What is behaviorism?
A personality theory that focuses only on observable behaviors, not mental processes
How did John Watson contribute to psychology?
Founder of behaviorism
Explain B.F. Skinner's ideas about how personality is formed.
He believed we are shaped through reinforcement and punishment.
Differentiate between reinforcement & punishment
Reinforcement: Events that follow responses and increase the tendency to repeat those responses
Punishment: Events that follow responses and decrease the tendency to repeat those responses
What was Albert Bandura's famous experiment & what did it illustrate?
The Bobo doll experiment: Children who viewed aggressive models behaved even more aggressively
Differentiate between classical conditioning, operant conditioning & observational learning.
Classical conditioning: We associate two stimuli and those anticipate events
Operant conditioning: A person's behavior is shaped through reinforcement and punishment
Observational learning: Learning that occurs through watching those around us and imitating their behavior
What is humanism?
Studied how "healthy" people strive for self-determination and self-realization
Expalin Carl Roger's ideas about personality development.
Believed that people are basically good and have an innate tendency to fulfill their potential
Version of yourself created out of what you have learned from your life experiences
Being real and open
Sharing thoughts and feelings
Unconditional Positive Regard
Attitude of total acceptance towards another person
How did Rogers define a "fully functioning individual"?
Occurs when a person unites what we would like to be with what we are
Explain Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
Ranks human needs in order of importance. Higher needs in the pyramid only come into focus when the lower needs are met
What is a self-actualized person like?
All needs must be met to reach their potential
What is trait theory?
Interested in describing personality, not concerned with how it forms
Define the "Big five" personality traits of openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness & neuroticism.
Openness: Curious, willing to consider new possibilities
Conscientiousness: Disciplined, responsible
Extraversion: Sociable and outgoing
Agreeableness: Compassionate, cooperative
Neuroticism: Anxious, insecure
Differentiate between test validity & test reliability.
Test validity: The extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure
Test reliability: The extent to which a test measures consistent results
What are projective tests? Are they valid & reliable?
Designed to provide insight into the test taker's unconscious. Questionable reliability and validity.
Explain what the Rorschach & the Thematic Apperception Test involve.
Rorschach test: A set of 10 inkblots designed to identify people's inner feelings
TAT test: People express their inner feelings through stories they make up about 40 scene cards
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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